Applied Nanoscience

, Volume 8, Issue 7, pp 1711–1727 | Cite as

The experimental study to examine the stable dispersion of the graphene nanoparticles and to look at the GO–H2O nanofluid flow between two rotating disks

  • Taza GulEmail author
  • Kiran Firdous
Original Article


The nanofluid analysis has been carried out as a function of temperature and this idea is utilized to study the graphene oxide (GO) water-based nanofluid from both experimental and numerical perspectives. Various spectral investigations were used to endorse the successful synthesis of graphene oxide. The obtained GO exhibits large size platelet morphology with stable dispersion in water. The experimental procedure of the preparation of nanofluid and its outputs has been analyzed with numerical data. The obtained results from the Chebyshev spectral scheme were transformed into a mathematical model considering the 3D flow of the dispersed GO nanofluid between two parallel rotating disks using the governing Navier–Stokes equations and energy equation with the utilization of Von Karman similarity transformations. The obtained nonlinear differential equations have been examined through a recently fashionable analytic approximation method called the Optimal Homotopy Analysis Method (OHAM). Opposite and same direction rotational effects have been conferred on the flow characteristics. To analyze how the velocities, pressure and temperature fields are affected by various parameters, plots have been displayed. Convergence of the obtained results has been authenticated with residual errors physically and numerically. Moreover, the physical parameters impact, such as local Nusselt number and skin friction coefficients are obtained through numerical data and inspect.


Synthesis of graphene oxide Three-dimensional GO–H2O nanofluid flow Rotating disks Heat transfer OHAM Error analysis for convergence 



The authors are very thankful to the academic section of the higher education department Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, for their financial support for this research project:

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors state that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Higher Education Department (GSSC) Khyber PakhtunkhwaPeshawarPakistan
  2. 2.Department of mathematicsCity University of Science and Information TechnologyPeshawarPakistan
  3. 3.Department of mathematicsUniversity of PeshawarPeshawarPakistan

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