Advertisement

Applied Nanoscience

, Volume 8, Issue 7, pp 1711–1727 | Cite as

The experimental study to examine the stable dispersion of the graphene nanoparticles and to look at the GO–H2O nanofluid flow between two rotating disks

  • Taza Gul
  • Kiran Firdous
Original Article
  • 17 Downloads

Abstract

The nanofluid analysis has been carried out as a function of temperature and this idea is utilized to study the graphene oxide (GO) water-based nanofluid from both experimental and numerical perspectives. Various spectral investigations were used to endorse the successful synthesis of graphene oxide. The obtained GO exhibits large size platelet morphology with stable dispersion in water. The experimental procedure of the preparation of nanofluid and its outputs has been analyzed with numerical data. The obtained results from the Chebyshev spectral scheme were transformed into a mathematical model considering the 3D flow of the dispersed GO nanofluid between two parallel rotating disks using the governing Navier–Stokes equations and energy equation with the utilization of Von Karman similarity transformations. The obtained nonlinear differential equations have been examined through a recently fashionable analytic approximation method called the Optimal Homotopy Analysis Method (OHAM). Opposite and same direction rotational effects have been conferred on the flow characteristics. To analyze how the velocities, pressure and temperature fields are affected by various parameters, plots have been displayed. Convergence of the obtained results has been authenticated with residual errors physically and numerically. Moreover, the physical parameters impact, such as local Nusselt number and skin friction coefficients are obtained through numerical data and inspect.

Keywords

Synthesis of graphene oxide Three-dimensional GO–H2O nanofluid flow Rotating disks Heat transfer OHAM Error analysis for convergence 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are very thankful to the academic section of the higher education department Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, for their financial support for this research project:

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors state that they have no competing interests.

References

  1. Alshomrani AS, Gul T (2017) The Convective Study of the Al2O3-H2O and Cu-H2O nano-liquid film sprayed over a stretching cylinder with viscous dissipation. Eur Phys J Plus 132:495–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baby TT, Ramaprabhu S (2010) Investigation of thermal and electrical conductivity of graphene based nanofluids. J Appl Phys 108(12):124308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balandin AA, Ghosh S, Bao W, Calizo I, Teweldebrhan D, Miao F, Lau CN (2008) Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene. Nano Lett 8(3):902–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bilal S, Fahim M, Firdous I, Anwar-ul-Haq A, Shah A (2018) Insight into capacitive performance of polyaniline/graphene oxide composites with ecofriendly binder. Appl Surf Sci 435:91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brinkman HC (1952) The viscosity of concentrated suspensions and solutions. J Chem Phys 20(4):571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Choi SUS, Eastman JA (1995) Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles. In: the proceedings of the 1995 ASME international mechanical engineering congress and exposition, San Francisco ASME, USA, 1995, pp 99–105, FED 231/MD 66Google Scholar
  7. Fang T (2007) Flow over a stretchable disk. Phys Fluids 19:128105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Geim AK, Novoselov KS (2007) The rise of graphene. Nat Mater 6(3):183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hatami M, Sheikholeslami M, Gangi DD (2014) Laminar flow and heat transfer of nanofluids between contracting and rotating disks by least square method. Power Technol 253:769–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hosseini SR, Sheikholeslami M, Ghasemian M, Ganji DD (2018) Nanofluid heat transfer analysis in a micro channel heat sink (MCHS) under the effect of magnetic field by means of KKL model. Powder Tech 324:36–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hummers WS, Offeman RE (1958) Preparation of graphitic oxide. J Am Chem Soc 80:1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ijam A, Saidur R, Ganesan P, Moradi Golsheikh A (2015) Stability, thermo-physical properties, and electrical conductivity of graphene oxide-deionized water/ethylene glycol based nanofluid. Int J Heat Mass Trans 87:92–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Iqbal Z, Azhar E, Mehmood Z, Maraj EN, Kamran A (2017) Computational analysis of engine-oil based magnetite nanofluid problem inspired with entropy generation. J Mol Liq 230:295–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Khan WA, Pop I (2010) Boundary layer.flow of a nanofluid past a stretching sheet. Int J Heat Mass Transf 53:2477–2483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lance GN, Rogers MH (1962) The axially symmetric flow of a viscous fluid between two infinite rotating disks. Proc R Soc A 266:109–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lee S, Choi SUS, Li S, Eastman JA (1999) Measuring thermal conductivity of fluids containing oxide nanoparticles. J Heat Transf 121(2):280–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li ZF, Zhang H, Liu Q, Liu Y, Stanciu L, Xie J (2014) Covalently-grafted polyaniline on Graphene oxide sheets for high performance electrochemical super capacitors. Carbon 71:257–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liao SJ (2010) An optimal homotopy-analysis approach for strongly nonlinear differential equations. Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simul 15:2003–2016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu J, Wang F, Zhang L, Fang X, Zhang Z (2014) Thermodynamic properties and thermal stability of ionic liquid-based nanofluids containing graphene as advanced heat transfer fluids for medium-to-high-temperature applications. Renew Energy 63:519–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Maraj EN, Shaiq S, Iqbal Z (2018) Assessment of hexahedron and lamina shaped graphene oxide nanoparticles suspended in ethylene and propylene glycol influenced by internal heat generation and thermal deposition. J Mol Liq.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2018.04.072 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mustafa M, Hayat T, Pop I, Asghar S, Obaidat S (2011) Stagnation-point flow of a nanofluid towards a stretching sheet. Int J Heat Mass Transf 54:5588–5594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nasir S, Islam S, Gul T, Shah Z, Khan MA, Khan W, Khan AZ, Khan S (2018) Three dimensional rotating flow of MHD single wall carbon nanotubes over a stretching sheet in presence of thermal radiation. Appl Nanosci.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13204-018-0766-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Paredes JI, Villar-Rodil S, Martínez-Alonso A, Tascón JMD (2008) Graphene oxide dispersions in organic solvents. Langmuir 24:10560–10564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rashidi MM, Kavyani N, Abelman S (2014) Investigation of entropy generation in MHD and slip flow over rotating porous disk with variable properties. Int J Heat Mass Transf 70:892–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shah Z, Islam S, Gul T, Bonyah E, Khan MA (2018) The Electrical MHD and hall current impact on micropolar nanofluid flow between rotating parallel plates. Results Phys 9:1201–1214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sheikholeslami M (2017) Influence of magnetic field on nanofluid free convection in an open porous cavity by means of Lattice Boltzmann method. J Mol Liq 234:364–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sheikholeslami M (2018a) Numerical investigation of nanofluid free convection under the influence of electric field in a porous enclosure. J Mol Liq 249:1212–1221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sheikholeslami M (2018b) Numerical investigation for CuO-H2O nanofluid flow in a porous channel with magnetic field using mesoscopic method. J of Molec Liq 249:739–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sheikholeslami M (2018c) Finite element method for PCM solidification in existence of CuO nanoparticles. J Mol Liq 265:347–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sheikholeslami M, Ganji DD (2017) Numerical analysis of nanofluid transportation in porous media under the influence of external magnetic source. J Mol Liq 233:499–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sheikholeslami M, Ganji DD (2018) Influence of electric field on Fe3O4 water nanofluid radiative and convective heat transfer in a permeable enclosure. J Mol Liq 250:404–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sheikholeslami M, Rokni HB (2018) Numerical simulation for impact of Coulomb force on nanofluid heat transfer in a porous enclosure in presence of thermal radiation. Int J Heat Mass Trans 118:823–831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sheikholeslami M, Sadoughi MK (2018) Simulation of CuO-water nanofluid heat transfer enhancement in presence of melting surface. Int J Heat Mass Trans 116:909–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sheikholeslami M, Shehzad SA (2018) Numerical analysis of Fe3O4–H2O nanofluid flow in permeable media under the effect of external magnetic source. Int J Heat Mass Trans 118:182–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sheikholeslami M, Hatami M, Ganji DD (2015) Numerical investigation of nanofluid spraying on an inclined rotating disk for cooling process. J Mol Liq 211:577–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sheikholeslami M, Nimafar M, Ganji DD (2017a) Analytical approach for the effect of melting heat transfer on nanofluid heat transfer. Eur Phys J Plus 132:385–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sheikholeslami M, Ganji DD, Moradi R (2017b) Forced convection in existence of Lorentz forces in a porous cavity with hot circular obstacle using nanofluid via Lattice Boltzmann method. J Mol Liq 246:103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sheikholeslami M, Ganji DD, Moradi R (2017c) Heat transfer of Fe3O4 water nanofluid in a permeable medium with thermal radiation in existence of constant heat flux. Chem Eng Sci 174:326–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sheikholeslami M, Shehzad SA, Abbasi FM, Li Z (2018a) Nanofluid flow and forced convection heat transfer due to Lorentz forces in a porous lid driven cubic enclosure with hot obstacle. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 338:491–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sheikholeslami M, Jafaryar M, Saleem S, Li Z, Shafee A, Jiang Y (2018b) Nanofluid heat transfer augmentation and exergy loss inside a pipe equipped with innovative turbulators. Int J Heat Mass Trans 126:156–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sheikholeslami M, Jafaryar M, Bateni K, Ganji DD (2018c) Two phase modeling of nanofluid flow in existence of melting heat transfer by means of HAM. Indian J Phys 92:205–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sheikholeslami M, Darzi M, Li Z (2018d) Experimental investigation for entropy generation and exergy loss of nano-refrigerant condensation process. Int J Heat Mass Trans 125:1087–1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shen J, Hu Y, Shi M, Lu X, Qin C, Li C, Ye M (2009) Fast and facile preparation of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide nanoplatelets. Chem Mater 21:3514–3520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sudeep PM, Taha-Tijerina J, Ajayan PM, Narayanan TN, Anantharaman MR (2014) Nanofluids based on fluorinated graphene oxide for efficient thermal management. RSC Adv 4:24887–24892 47)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Teng TP, Yu CC (2013) Heat dissipation performance of MWCNTs nano-coolant for vehicle. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 49:22–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Turkyilmazoglu M (2014) Nanofluid flow and heat transfer due to a rotating disk. Comput Fluids 94:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Turkyilmazoglu M (2016) Flow and heat simultaneously induced by two stretchable rotating disks. Phys Fluids 28:1–12Google Scholar
  48. Turkyilmazoglu M, Senel P (2013) Heat and mass transfer of the flow due to a rotating rough and porous disk. Int J Thermal Sci 63:146–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Vajjha RS, Das DK (2009) Experimental determination of thermal conductivity of three nanofluids and development of new correlations. Int J Heat Mass Transf 52:21–22 4675–4682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Von Karman T, Laminare U, Reibung T (1921) Über laminare und turbulente Reibung. ZAMM Z Angew Math Mech 1:233–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Higher Education Department (GSSC) Khyber PakhtunkhwaPeshawarPakistan
  2. 2.Department of mathematicsCity University of Science and Information TechnologyPeshawarPakistan
  3. 3.Department of mathematicsUniversity of PeshawarPeshawarPakistan

Personalised recommendations