Tolnaftate–graphene composite-loaded nanoengineered electrospun scaffolds as efficient therapeutic dressing material for regimen of dermatomycosis

  • Shashi Kiran Misra
  • Pramod W. Ramteke
  • Sandip Patil
  • Avinash C. Pandey
  • Himanshu Pandey
Original Article


Graphene “The novel carbon nano-trope” tailors auspicious platform for designing antimicrobial regimen by virtue of its conspicuous molecular interaction with the microorganism. In this work, Tolnaftate (Tf), an antifungal drug, was mingled with Graphene nanoplatelets (Gn) to develop composite (Tf–Gn) via the wet chemical route, embedded in a biocompatible polymeric blend of Eudragit RL100/Eudragit RS100 (EuRL100/EuRS100) and subjected to electrospinning to obtain nonwoven nanoengineered scaffolds (nanofibers) for enhanced anti-dermatophytic virtue. Pursuing cluster of optimization experiments, 20% w/v EuRL100/EuRS 100 was found to be adequate for formation of smooth, defect-free, and regular fibers. Field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) acknowledged zestfully fabrication of smooth, shiny, nano-range, and mesh-like architecture, comprising distinct pockets within their structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) conceded formation of the composite Tf–Gn, its physical compatibility with polymers, and improved thermal behavior. Exceptional swelling capacity, significant hydrophilicity, and immense drug entrapment efficiency were obtained of nanofibers fabricated from 3:1 ratio of EuRL100/EuRS100 polymers blend owing to relatively higher permeability which gratified essential benchmark for fabrication of nanofibrous scaffold to alleviate fungal infections caused by dermatophytes. In vitro drug release interpreted controlled liberation of Tf in dissolution media, following Korsmeyer–Peppas model kinetics, and suggested a diffusion-based mechanism. Microdilution broth method was performed for in vitro antifungal efficacy against extremely devastating dermatophytes, i.e., anthropophilic Trichophyton rubrum and zoophilic Microsporum canis, exhibited preeminent growth inhibition against T.rubrum and scanty for M.canis. Findings revealed the superior antifungal activity of Tf–Gn-loaded nanofibers as compared to Tf-loaded nanofibers and recommended potential dressing materials for an effective regimen of dermatomycosis.


Graphene Tolnaftate Composite Dermatomycosis Dressing materials 



We thankfully acknowledge the authorities and staff members of Chemical Engineering, IIT Kanpur and Botany Department, the University of Allahabad for generously granting all working facilities and extending their grudgeless cooperation. Our sincere thanks are also for Mr. Akhilesh Kumar Mishra, research scholar, SHUATS, Allahabad for his kind cooperation.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shashi Kiran Misra
    • 1
  • Pramod W. Ramteke
    • 1
  • Sandip Patil
    • 2
  • Avinash C. Pandey
    • 3
  • Himanshu Pandey
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesSam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and SciencesAllahabadIndia
  2. 2.E-Spin NanoTech Private Ltd., SIDBI Innovation & Incubation Center, Indian Institute of TechnologyKanpurIndia
  3. 3.Nanotechnology Application Centre, Institute of Interdisciplinary StudiesUniversity of AllahabadAllahabadIndia

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