Zn–Ge–Sb glass composite mixed with Ba2+ ions: a high capacity anode material for Na-ion batteries
(100–x)(0.7[0.625ZnO–0.375GeO2]–0.3Sb2O3)–xBaO (x = 0, 2, 4 and 6 mol%, labeled as ZGSBx) glass anode samples are synthesized using a high-energy ball-milling method and employed as anode material for Na-ion batteries. The results on microstructures (XRD, SEM) and electrochemical properties (constant current charge/discharge tests, CV and EIS) indicated that the optimum concentration of Ba2+ ions in the Zn–Ge–Sb glass anode network exhibits the pillaring effect, which would lead to increased electrical conductivity, minimize the volume changes, cracks and voids to boost up electrochemical performance. The ZGSB4 glass anode sample exhibits good capacity retention even after 20 cycles with ~ 95% coulombic efficiency, which is a significant trend for a successful anode network. Electrochemical performance is considerably enhanced by reducing the cut-off voltage from 2 to 1.25 V due to the disassembly of amorphous intermediate domains, optimum volume changes and increased electrical conductivity in this ZGSBx glass network.
KeywordsZn–Ge–Sb glass anode network High-energy ball-milling method Na-ion batteries
This study was supported by the Grant-in-Aid for scientific research from the Naval Research Board, DRDO, Govt. of India (Grant No: NRB-311/MAT/13–14).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no competing financial interest.
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