Experimental study of flow pattern and sediment behavior near the intake structures using the spur dike and skimming wall
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Channel junctions and lateral intakes are always caused turbulence in the passing flow. In this research, an experimental study was carried out to explore a possible method for sediment control for a series of skimming walls and a single spur dike, simultaneously. In order to direct the flow into the diversion channel and increase the skimming wall function, a single spur dike was utilized at the opposite side of the intake channel. The flow patterns for three conditions, including (1) without structures, (2) with skimming wall and (3) skimming wall and spur dike, are considered. The results showed that the use of skimming wall and a combination of skimming wall and spur dike makes it possible to direct the thalweg toward the intake port. In addition, by using the skimming wall, a trench is made toward the intake, which in turn increases the impoundment efficiency by 81% in the skimming wall combined with spur dike and up to about 66% for using the skimming wall.
KeywordsIntake port Spur dike Sediment efficiency Skimming wall
Considering the literature review, most studies have been conducted on submerged vanes, sill, spur dike or a combination of them in intakes. Therefore, more studies are required in this area, especially, when the skimming wall is used in the intake entrance. In addition, to represent the effect of the skimming wall on the amount of sediment entering to the intake, it is required to use a combination of wall and spur dike and compare this state with no-structure conditions. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of skimming wall on controlling sediment entering the lateral intake with an angle of 60° from the rectangular channel. In this study, the possibility of application of submerged vanes in controlling the flow direction and directing the river thalweg toward the intake port is also considered. This research explores the effect of the skimming wall on increasing the flow rate in the intake and the reducing sedimentation in the intake compared with conditions in which no skimming wall was used. It should be mentioned that the velocity distribution at the intake port has been measured.
Materials and methods
Properties of the bed material
The parameter range in this study
Q in main channel (m3/s)
Q in lateral channel (m3/s)
Flow depth in main channel (m)
Results and discussion
Effects of skimming wall on river topography
Effect of skimming wall and spur dike on sedimentation at the intake port
Effects of skimming wall on changes in the velocity distribution near the intake port
Effects of skimming wall and spur dike on change in position of maximum velocity in the main channel
Effects of skimming wall and spur dike on streamlines and isovels (m/s) in the main channel
In this paper, the flow pattern and sediment behavior near the intake structures using the spur dike and skimming wall were investigated experimentally in open-channel flow. In order to study the flow patterns in alluvial bed, the bed considered modular, which provides the possibility of better understanding the phenomena governing the process without changing the bed. Width of narrowing area of the flow in intake is reduced from the floor to the water surface. In the narrowing area of the intake, flow depth is minimized and is closed to the critical depth. Despite the secondary currents within the intake, after entering sediment into the intake, they move to the separation zone and then to downstream. By installing the spur dike on the intake, the width of the separation zone will be reduced and increased on the channel bottom and water surface, respectively. As a result, the area affected by the intake on the channel bottom will be decreased, while the amount of entering sediments to the intake will be reduced. In addition, the results showed that by using a skimming wall and spur dike, the thalweg directs toward the intake port. By using the skimming wall and spur dike, a trench is formed toward the intake port. Results showed that in the condition with skimming wall combined with spur dike, the amount of sediment entering the intake decreased up to 81%. Combined skimming wall and spur dike has a higher effect on reducing sediments entering intake (15%) compared to the conditions with skimming wall alone.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
I certify that this manuscript is original and has not been published and will not be submitted elsewhere for publication while being considered by Applied Water Science. And the study is not split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time.
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