Genetic diversity and host relationships of endosymbiotic bacteria in the Asian cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci from Bangladesh
- 26 Downloads
Endosymbiotic bacteria are common in many herbivorous insects. Bemisia tabaci is a phloem-sapping pest of various crop plants and is known to harbor at least five endosymbionts. This species is a complex of at least 40 genetically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species worldwide. Endosymbiont composition has been studied in invasive cryptic species such as MEAM1 and MED, but little information exists regarding the indigenous genetic groups in Asia. Here, we determined the endosymbiont profiles of four indigenous Asian cryptic species (Asia I, Asia II 1, Asia II 5 and Asia II 10) of B. tabaci identified in Bangladesh. Overall, the infection rates of Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Hamiltonella, Rickettsia, and Wolbachia were 93%, 86%, 0%, 31%, and 88%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two subgroups in Arsenophonus (A1, A2) and Rickettsia (R1, R2), but only one subgroup in Cardinium (C2) and Wolbachia (W1). Each endosymbiont showed varying rates of infection in the four cryptic species and most were co-infected with various combinations. The results of this study provide important information on the relationships between the endosymbionts and cryptic species of B. tabaci indigenous to Asia.
KeywordsCo-infection Cryptic species Endosymbionts Genetic diversity Phylogenetics
We thank Hwal-Su Hwang at Kyungpook National University in the Republic of Korea for his help with sequencing and molecular analysis. This work was supported by the Research Program for Exportation Support of Agricultural Products, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, in the Republic of Korea under Grant (#Z-1543086-2017-21-01).
- Cahill M, Denholm I, Bryne FJ, Al D (1996) Insecticide resistance in Bemisia tabaci- current status and implications for management. In: Proceedings of Brighton crop protection conference: Pest and diseases, vol 1, pp 75–80Google Scholar
- Czosnek H, Ghanim M (2011) Bemisia tabaci – tomato yellow leaf curl virus Interaction Causing Worldwide Epidemics. In: Thompson W (ed) The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) interaction with Geminivirus-infected host plants. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
- Gottlieb Y, Zchori-Fein E, Mozes-Daube N, Kontsedalov S, Skaljac M, Brumin M, Sobol I, Czosnek H, Vavre F, Fleury F, Ghanim M (2010) The transmission efficiency of tomato yellow leaf curl virus by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci is correlated with the presence of a specific symbiotic bacterium species. J Virol 84:9310–9317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hameed S, Hameed S, Sadia M, Malik SA (2012) Genetic diversity analysis of Bemisia tabaci populations in Pakistan using RAPD markers. Electron J Biotechnol 15Google Scholar
- Rosell RC, Blackmer JL, Czosnek H, Inbar M (2010) In: Stansly PA, Naranjos SE (eds) Bemisia: Bionomics and Management of a Global PestMutualistic and dependent relationships with other organisms. Springer, Netherlands, pp 161–183Google Scholar
- Shah SHJ, Malik AH, Qazi J (2013) Identification of new genetic variant of Bemisia tabaci from Pakistan. Int J Entomol Res 1:16–24Google Scholar
- Singh ST, Priya NG, Kumar J, Rana VS, Ellango R, Joshi A, Priyadarshini G, Asokan R, Rajagopal R (2012) Diversity and phylogenetic analysis of endosymbiotic bacteria from field caught Bemisia tabaci from different locations of North India based on 16S r DNA library screening. Infect Genet Evol 12:411–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tajima F (1989) A statistical method for testing the neutral mutation hypothesis by DNA polymorphism. Genetics 123:585–595Google Scholar
- Weeks AR, Velten R, Stouthamer R (2003) Incidence of a new sex-ratio-distorting endosymbiotic bacterium among arthropods. Proc Biol Sci 270:1857–1865Google Scholar
- Zchori-Fein E, Brown JK (2002) Diversity of prokaryotes associated with Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera; Aleyrodidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am 95:711–718Google Scholar