, Volume 79, Issue 1, pp 59–74 | Cite as

Role of putrescine (Put) in imparting salt tolerance through modulation of put metabolism, mycorrhizal and rhizobial symbioses in Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

  • Neera GargEmail author
  • Amrita Sharma


Salt stress is a major environmental constraint that limits growth and nitrogen-fixation in legumes. Role of putrescine (Put) and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) in improving functional efficiency of legumes has gained importance in recent years. Present investigations assessed the impact of Put (1 mM) seed priming and/or Rhizophagus irregularis inoculation on growth, mycorrhizal and rhizobial symbioses with an emphasis to correlate the same with nodular Put metabolism in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) genotypes (Tolerant-Pusa 2001 and Sensitive-Pusa 991) under salt stress. Salinity declined plant biomass, with greater negative effects on roots than shoots which reduced the mycorrhizal colonization as well as nodulation ability of Sinorhizobium fredii AR-4. The decline in nitrogen-fixing efficiency could be correlated with increase in Na+ concentrations in roots as well as nodules. Salinity reduced endogenous Put by increasing diamine oxidase (DAO) as well as decreasing arginine decarboxylase (ADC) as well as ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activities in nodules. Put priming enhanced per cent mycorrhizal colonization which further increased the rhizobial symbiotic efficiency, more in Pusa 2001 than Pusa 991. Both Put priming and AM inoculations reduced Na+ uptake and improved nutrient status especially P in both underground organs, with AM more effective than Put. The further decline in Na+ uptake was recorded when both amendments were given together which enhanced nitrogen-fixing ability of nodules by modulating anabolic and catabolic enzyme activities responsible for Put biosynthesis. Hence, +Put+AM can be used as an effective strategy to improve symbiotic potential and arrest nodule senescence in pigeonpea under salt stress.


Salt stress Rhizophagus irregularis Putrescine Cajanus cajan Rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses 



We gratefully acknowledge the University Grants Commission and Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, for providing financial support in undertaking the research work. We are also thankful to TERI, New Delhi, and Pulse laboratory, IARI, New Delhi, for providing the biological research material.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13199_2019_621_Fig6_ESM.png (92 kb)

Effect of Putrescine (Put) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM, Rhizophagus irregularis) inoculation on a) potassium to sodium ratio (K+/Na+) and b) calcium to sodium ratio (Ca2+/Na+) in roots of differentially salt-tolerant Pusa 2001 and Pusa 991 pigeonpea genotypes under different levels of salinity stress (0–100 mM). Each value is the mean of six replicates ± standard error (SE). Different letters above each line indicate significant differences among the treatments, assessed by Duncan multiple range test, at p ≤ 0.05. –Put–AM = Put unprimed non-AM plants; +Put–AM = Put primed non-AM plants; –Put+AM = Put unprimed AM plants; +Put+AM = Put primed AM plants (PNG 91 kb)

13199_2019_621_MOESM1_ESM.tif (3.3 mb)
High Resolution Image (TIF 3403 kb)
13199_2019_621_MOESM2_ESM.docx (15 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 15 kb)


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

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