, Volume 76, Issue 3, pp 265–275 | Cite as

Polyamines and flavonoids: key compounds in mycorrhizal colonization of improved and unimproved soybean genotypes

  • María S. Salloum
  • María F. Menduni
  • María P. Benavides
  • Mariana Larrauri
  • Celina M. LunaEmail author
  • Sonia SilventeEmail author


Modern breeding programs might have caused a reduction in plant responsiveness to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Flavonoids and polyamines (PAs) are hypothesized to play a role in this symbiosis. We tested the effects of them in AMF roots of improved (I-1) and unimproved (UI-4) soybean genotypes, under the hypothesis that domestication decreased their concentration in roots, affecting AMF colonization, particularly arbuscule formation. After 20 days of treatment, AMF roots of UI-4 genotype had greater amount of total flavonoids/phenols and PAs while in I-1 genotype no differences were observed between roots of mycorrhizal (M) and non mycorrhizal (NM) plants. Exogenous application of flavonoids led to an increase in arbuscules in both genotypes. Improved-1 genotype needed higher levels of flavonoids to reach the percentage of mycorrhization achieved by UI-4 control. In regard to PAs, mycorrhizal plants of both genotypes had higher endogenous concentration than NM plants, however, the highest concentration, especially of putrescine (put) was in UI-4 M genotype. To check the participation of put in symbiosis we used RNAi silencing methodology. Down regulation of the GmADC transcript, involved in put formation, had a profound negative effect on mycorrhizal colonization and also affected the normal development of the plant. By contrast, down regulation of GmDAO, in which ADC transcript was expressed, arbuscule formation was similar to control plant. Our results suggest that mycorrhizal colonization is affected by soybean domestication particularly arbuscule formation and this effect seems to be mediated by the endogenous roots levels of flavonoids and PAs, especially put.


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Flavonoids Polyamines, improved and unimproved soybean genotypes 



This work was funded by National Promotion Agency Science and Technology (ANPCyT) through the Fund for Scientific Research and Technology (FONCyT): Projects of Scientific and Technological Research (PICT) 2012-0339 and by the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) through Projects N°1133032 and N°1127033. The National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET) awarded the scholarship to Maria S. Salloum and Scientific Research and Technology (FONCyT) awarded the scholarship to Maria F. Menduni. We are very grateful to Dr. Javier Gilli for providing the soybean seeds. The authors are thankful to Alicia López López for manuscript language editing.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • María S. Salloum
    • 1
    • 5
  • María F. Menduni
    • 2
    • 5
  • María P. Benavides
    • 3
  • Mariana Larrauri
    • 4
    • 1
  • Celina M. Luna
    • 1
    • 5
    Email author
  • Sonia Silvente
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)-Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (CIAP)Instituto de Fisiología y Recursos Genéticos Vegetales (IFRGV). Camino 60 cuadrasCórdobaArgentina
  2. 2.Fondo para la Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (FONCyT) - Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA)Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (CIAP), Instituto de Fisiología y Recursos Genéticos Vegetales (IFRGV). Camino 60 cuadrasCórdobaArgentina
  3. 3.Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Departamento de Química Biológica, Junín 956Universidad de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina
  4. 4.Facultad de Ciencias AgropecuariasUniversidad Nacional de Córdoba (IMBIV—CONICET)CórdobaArgentina
  5. 5.Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Centro de Investigación Agropecuaria (CIAP)Instituto de Fisiología y Recursos Genéticos Vegetales (IFRGV)CórdobaArgentina
  6. 6.Instituto de Ambiente de Montaña y Regiones Áridas (IAMRA)Universidad Nacional de Chilecito (UNdeC)La RiojaArgentina

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