, Volume 77, Issue 3, pp 265–278 | Cite as

Dynamics of endogenous hormone regulation in plants by phytohormone secreting rhizobacteria under water-stress

  • Daipayan Ghosh
  • Anshika Gupta
  • Sridev MohapatraEmail author


Although the physiological benefits of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to plants are well known, the precise mechanisms that make these PGPR such wonderful friends of plants under adverse environmental conditions are still under investigation. We have previously reported that one such PGPR, Pseudomonas putida GAP-P45 ameliorates the adverse effects of water deficit in Arabidopsis thaliana by upregulating proline turnover and polyamine biosynthesis (Ghosh et al. Ann Microbiol 67:655–668, 2017; Sen et al. Plant Physiol Biochem 129:180–188, 2018). In this study, we investigated the impact of this phytohormone secreting strain on the regulation of endogenous phytohormone (abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin and gibberellic acid) modulation in A. thaliana under normal and water stress conditions. We analyzed the content of all four phytohormones secreted by the bacteria in the nutrient medium as well as in the roots and shoots (separately) of the inoculated plants at three different days, post treatments. We observed that, while water stress increased the accumulation of abscisic acid and decreased the content of auxin and cytokinin in shoots and roots; the level of gibberellic acid decreased in shoots but increased in roots due to stress. Inoculation with GAP-P45 under water stress effectively reversed the trends of phytohormone accumulation, making their levels similar to the non-stressed, non-inoculated control plants. This happened despite there being no change in the water-potential of the medium due to GAP-P45 inoculation. We also observed that the pattern of phytohormones secreted by the PGPR varied depending on composition of nutrient media and culture conditions. We conclude that P. putida GAP-P45 alleviates water stress in A. thaliana by altering the endogenous hormone accumulation and re-distribution in both roots and shoots without causing any change to the water-potential of the medium.


Arabidopsis thaliana Pseudomonas putida Water-stress Phytohormones 



The authors thank Dr. Minakshi Grover, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India for help in procuring the rhizobacterial strain used in this study and Dr. Vincent Vadez and Dr. Jana Kholova, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Hyderabad, India for help with water potential measurements.


This work was funded by Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, India.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13199_2018_589_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.7 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1729 kb)


  1. Achard P, Cheng H, De Grauwe L, et al (2006) Integration of Plant Responses to Environmentally Activated Phytohormonal Signals. Science 311:91–94 .
  3. Ali B, Sabri AN, Ljung K, Hasnain S (2009) Auxin production by plant associated bacteria: impact on endogenous IAA content and growth of Triticum aestivum L. Lett Appl Microbiol 48:542–547. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Almeida Trapp M, De Souza GD, Rodrigues-Filho E et al (2014) Validated method for phytohormone quantification in plants. Front Plant Sci 5:417. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Arkhipova TN, Prinsen E, Veselov SU, Martinenko EV, Melentiev AI, Kudoyarova GR (2007) Cytokinin producing bacteria enhance plant growth in drying soil. Plant Soil 292:305–315. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arzanesh MH, Alikhani HA, Khavazi K, Rahimian HA, Miransari M (2011) Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth enhancement by Azospirillum sp. under drought stress. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 27:197–205. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnawal D, Bharti N, Pandey SS, Pandey A, Chanotiya CS, Kalra A (2017) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria enhance wheat salt and drought stress tolerance by altering endogenous phytohormone levels and TaCTR1 / TaDREB2 expression. Physiol Plant 161:502–514. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bertani G (1951) Studies on lysogenesis. I. the mode of phage liberation by lysogenic Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 62:293–300PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Bresson J, Varoquaux F, Bontpart T, Touraine B, Vile D (2013) The PGPR strain Phyllobacterium brassicacearum STM196 induces a reproductive delay and physiological changes that result in improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. New Phytol 200:558–569. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. BS Saharan VN (2011) Plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria: A critical review. Life Sci Med Res 21:1–30Google Scholar
  11. Cassán F, Vanderleyden J, Spaepen S (2014) Physiological and agronomical aspects of Phytohormone production by model plant-growth-promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) belonging to the genus Azospirillum. J Plant Growth Regul 33:440–459. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cohen AC, Travaglia CN, Bottini R, Piccoli PN (2009) Participation of abscisic acid and gibberellins produced by endophytic Azospirillum in the alleviation of drought effects in maize. Botany 87:455–462. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Colebrook EH, Thomas SG, Phillips AL, Hedden P (2014) The role of gibberellin signalling in plant responses to abiotic stress. J Exp Biol 217:67–75. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Contesto C, Milesi S, Mantelin S, Zancarini A, Desbrosses G, Varoquaux F, Bellini C, Kowalczyk M, Touraine B (2010) The auxin-signaling pathway is required for the lateral root response of Arabidopsis to the rhizobacterium Phyllobacterium brassicacearum. Planta 232:1455–1470. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Contreras-Cornejo HA, Macías-Rodríguez L, Cortés-Penagos C, López-Bucio J (2009) Trichoderma virens, a plant beneficial fungus, enhances biomass production and promotes lateral root growth through an auxin-dependent mechanism in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 149:1579–1592. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. De Smet I, Zhang H, Inzé D, Beeckman T (2006) A novel role for abscisic acid emerges from underground. Trends Plant Sci 11:434–439. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ding L, Li Y, Wang Y, Gao L, Wang M, Chaumont F, Shen Q, Guo S (2016) Root ABA accumulation enhances Rice seedling drought tolerance under ammonium supply: interaction with Aquaporins. Front Plant Sci 7:1206. PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Dobra J, Motyka V, Dobrev P, Malbeck J, Prasil IT, Haisel D, Gaudinova A, Havlova M, Gubis J, Vankova R (2010) Comparison of hormonal responses to heat, drought and combined stress in tobacco plants with elevated proline content. J Plant Physiol 167:1360–1370. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dodd IC, Zinovkina NY, Safronova VI, Belimov AA (2010) Rhizobacterial mediation of plant hormone status. Ann Appl Biol 157:361–379. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Du H, Liu H, Xiong L (2013) Endogenous auxin and jasmonic acid levels are differentially modulated by abiotic stresses in rice. Front Plant Sci 4:397. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Fahad S, Hussain S, Bano A, Saud S, Hassan S, Shan D, Khan FA, Khan F, Chen Y, Wu C, Tabassum MA, Chun MX, Afzal M, Jan A, Jan MT, Huang J (2015a) Potential role of phytohormones and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in abiotic stresses: consequences for changing environment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:4907–4921. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fahad S, Hussain S, Matloob A, Khan FA, Khaliq A, Saud S, Hassan S, Shan D, Khan F, Ullah N, Faiq M, Khan MR, Tareen AK, Khan A, Ullah A, Ullah N, Huang J (2015b) Phytohormones and plant responses to salinity stress: a review. Plant Growth Regul 75:391–404. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Figueiredo M do VB, Bonifacio A, Rodrigues AC, de Araujo FF (2016) Plant growth-promoting Rhizobacteria: key mechanisms of action. In: Microbial-mediated induced systemic resistance in plants. Springer Singapore, Singapore, pp 23–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Galland M, Gamet L, Varoquaux F, Touraine B, Touraine B, Desbrosses G (2012) The ethylene pathway contributes to root hair elongation induced by the beneficial bacteria Phyllobacterium brassicacearum STM196. Plant Sci 190:74–81. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. García JE, Maroniche G, Creus C, Suárez-Rodríguez R, Ramirez-Trujillo JA, Groppa MD (2017) In vitro PGPR properties and water tolerance of different Azospirillum native strains and their effects on growth of maize under drought stress. Microbiol Res 202:21–29. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ghosh D, Sen S, Mohapatra S (2017) Modulation of proline metabolic gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana under water-stressed conditions by a drought-mitigating Pseudomonas putida strain. Ann Microbiol 67:655–668. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Golan Y, Shirron N, Avni A, Shmoish M, Gepstein S (2016) Cytokinins induce transcriptional reprograming and improve Arabidopsis plant performance under drought and salt stress conditions. Front Environ Sci 4(63).
  28. Górka B, Wieczorek PP (2017) Simultaneous determination of nine phytohormones in seaweed and algae extracts by HPLC-PDA. J Chromatogr B 1057:32–39. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gouda S, Kerry RG, Das G, Paramithiotis S, Shin HS, Patra JK (2018) Revitalization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for sustainable development in agriculture. Microbiol Res 206:131–140. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gupta A, Hisano H, Hojo Y, Matsuura T, Ikeda Y, Mori IC, Senthil-Kumar M (2017) Global profiling of phytohormone dynamics during combined drought and pathogen stress in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals ABA and JA as major regulators. Sci Rep 7:4017. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Ha S, Vankova R, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Shinozaki K, Tran LSP (2012) Cytokinins: metabolism and function in plant adaptation to environmental stresses. Trends Plant Sci 17:172–179. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hayat S, Hayat Q, Alyemeni MN, Wani AS, Pichtel J, Ahmad A (2012) Role of proline under changing environments. Plant Signal Behav 7:1456–1466. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Hu B, Cao J, Ge K, Li L (2016) The site of water stress governs the pattern of ABA synthesis and transport in peanut. Sci Rep 6:32143. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Iqbal A, Hasnain S (2013) Auxin producing Pseudomons strains: biological candidates to modulate the growth of Triticum aestivum beneficially. Am J Plant Sci 04:1693–1700. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Iqbal N, Nazar R, Khan MIR et al (2011) Role of gibberellins in regulation of source–sink relations under optimal and limiting environmental conditions. Curr Sci 100:998–1007Google Scholar
  36. Kang NY, Cho C, Kim NY, Kim J (2012) Cytokinin receptor-dependent and receptor-independent pathways in the dehydration response of Arabidopsis thaliana. J Plant Physiol 169:1382–1391. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kang S-M, Khan AL, Waqas M, You YH, Kim JH, Kim JG, Hamayun M, Lee IJ (2014a) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria reduce adverse effects of salinity and water stress by regulating phytohormones and antioxidants in Cucumis sativus. J Plant Interact 9:673–682. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kang S-M, Radhakrishnan R, Khan AL, Kim MJ, Park JM, Kim BR, Shin DH, Lee IJ (2014b) Gibberellin secreting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida H-2-3 modulates the hormonal and stress physiology of soybean to improve the plant growth under saline and drought conditions. Plant Physiol Biochem 84:115–124. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kaur G, Kumar S, Nayyar H, Upadhyaya HD (2008) Cold stress injury during the pod-filling phase in chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.): effects on quantitative and qualitative components of seeds. J Agron Crop Sci 194:457–464. Google Scholar
  40. Kazan K (2013) Auxin and the integration of environmental signals into plant root development. Ann Bot 112:1655–1665. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Khan AL, Halo BA, Elyassi A, Ali S, al-Hosni K, Hussain J, al-Harrasi A, Lee IJ (2016) Indole acetic acid and ACC deaminase from endophytic bacteria improves the growth of Solanum lycopersicum. Electron J Biotechnol 21:58–64. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kim JI, Baek D, Park HC, Chun HJ, Oh DH, Lee MK, Cha JY, Kim WY, Kim MC, Chung WS, Bohnert HJ, Lee SY, Bressan RA, Lee SW, Yun DJ (2013) Overexpression of Arabidopsis YUCCA6 in potato results in high-auxin developmental phenotypes and enhanced resistance to water deficit. Mol Plant 6:337–349. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. King RW, Evans LT (2003) G IBBERELLINS AND F LOWERING OF G RASSES AND C EREALS : prizing open the lid of the “Florigen” black box. Annu Rev Plant Biol 54:307–328. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lee S, Ka J-O, Song H-G (2012) Growth promotion of Xanthium italicum by application of rhizobacterial isolates of Bacillus aryabhattai in microcosm soil. J Microbiol 50:45–49. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lim J-H, Kim S-D (2013) Induction of drought stress resistance by multi-functional PGPR Bacillus licheniformis K11 in pepper. Plant Pathol J 29:201–208. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Liu F, Xing S, Ma H, du Z, Ma B (2013) Cytokinin-producing, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that confer resistance to drought stress in Platycladus orientalis container seedlings. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97:9155–9164. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Liu J-H, Wang W, Wu H, Gong X, Moriguchi T (2015) Polyamines function in stress tolerance: from synthesis to regulation. Front Plant Sci 6:827. PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Llanes A, Masciarelli O, Ordóñez R, Isla MI, Luna V (2014) Differential growth responses to sodium salts involve different abscisic acid metabolism and transport in Prosopis strombulifera. Biol Plant 58:80–88. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Llanes A, Andrade A, Alemano S, Luna V (2016) Alterations of endogenous hormonal levels in plants under drought and salinity. Am J Plant Sci 7:1357–1371. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mantelin S, Touraine B (2003) Plant growth-promoting bacteria and nitrate availability: impacts on root development and nitrate uptake. J Exp Bot 55:27–34. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Marulanda A, Barea J-M, Azcón R (2009) Stimulation of plant growth and drought tolerance by native microorganisms (AM Fungi and Bacteria) from dry environments: mechanisms related to bacterial effectiveness. J Plant Growth Regul 28:115–124. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McAdam SAM, Brodribb TJ, Ross JJ (2016) Shoot-derived abscisic acid promotes root growth. Plant Cell Environ 39:652–659. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ngumbi E, Kloepper J (2016) Bacterial-mediated drought tolerance: current and future prospects. Appl Soil Ecol 105:109–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nishiyama R, Watanabe Y, Fujita Y, le DT, Kojima M, Werner T, Vankova R, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Shinozaki K, Kakimoto T, Sakakibara H, Schmülling T, Tran LSP (2011) Analysis of Cytokinin mutants and regulation of Cytokinin metabolic genes reveals important regulatory roles of Cytokinins in drought, salt and abscisic acid responses, and abscisic acid biosynthesis. Plant Cell 23:2169–2183. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Numan M, Bashir S, Khan Y, Mumtaz R, Shinwari ZK, Khan AL, Khan A, al-Harrasi A (2018) Plant growth promoting bacteria as an alternative strategy for salt tolerance in plants: A review. Microbiol Res 209:21–32. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. O’Brien JA, Benková E (2013) Cytokinin cross-talking during biotic and abiotic stress responses. Front Plant Sci 4:451. PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Pereyra MA, García P, Colabelli MN, Barassi CA, Creus CM (2012) A better water status in wheat seedlings induced by Azospirillum under water stress is related to morphological changes in xylem vessels of the coleoptile. Appl Soil Ecol 53:94–97. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rasool S, Urwat U, Nazir M, Zargar SM, Zargar MY (2018) Cross talk between Phytohormone signaling pathways under abiotic stress conditions and their metabolic engineering for conferring abiotic stress tolerance. In: Abiotic stress-mediated sensing and signaling in plants: an omics perspective. Springer Singapore, Singapore, pp 329–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Remans R, Beebe S, Blair M, Manrique G, Tovar E, Rao I, Croonenborghs A, Torres-Gutierrez R, el-Howeity M, Michiels J, Vanderleyden J (2008) Physiological and genetic analysis of root responsiveness to auxin-producing plant growth-promoting bacteria in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plant Soil 302:149–161. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Riefler M, Novak O, Strnad M, Schmülling T (2006) Arabidopsis Cytokinin receptor mutants reveal functions in shoot growth, leaf senescence, seed size, germination, root development, and Cytokinin metabolism. PLANT CELL ONLINE 18:40–54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rood SB, Zanewich K, Stefura C, Mahoney JM (2000) Influence of water table decline on growth allocation and endogenous gibberellins in black cottonwood. Tree Physiol 20:831–836. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sah SK, Reddy KR, Li J (2016) Abscisic acid and abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Front Plant Sci 7:571. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Saini K, AbdElgawad H, Markakis MN, Schoenaers S, Asard H, Prinsen E, Beemster GTS, Vissenberg K (2017) Perturbation of auxin homeostasis and signaling by PINOID overexpression induces stress responses in Arabidopsis. Front Plant Sci 8:1308. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Sandhya V, A SKZ, Grover M et al (2009) Alleviation of drought stress effects in sunflower seedlings by the exopolysaccharides producing Pseudomonas putida strain GAP-P45. Biol Fertil Soils 46:17–26. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sandhya V, Ali SZ, Venkateswarlu B, Reddy G, Grover M (2010) Effect of water stress on plant growth promoting Pseudomonas spp. Arch Microbiol 192:867–876. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Selvakumar G, Bindu GH, Bhatt RM, Upreti KK, Paul AM, Asha A, Shweta K, Sharma M (2018) Osmotolerant Cytokinin producing microbes enhance tomato growth in deficit irrigation conditions. Proc Natl Acad Sci India Sect B Biol Sci 88:459–465. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sen S, Ghosh D, Mohapatra S (2018) Modulation of polyamine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana by a drought mitigating Pseudomonas putida strain. Plant Physiol Biochem 129:180–188. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sharp RE, LeNoble ME (2002) ABA, ethylene and the control of shoot and root growth under water stress. J Exp Bot 53:33–37. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shi H, Chen L, Ye T, Liu X, Ding K, Chan Z (2014) Modulation of auxin content in Arabidopsis confers improved drought stress resistance. Plant Physiol Biochem 82:209–217. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Spaepen S, Versées W, Gocke D et al (2007) Characterization of phenylpyruvate decarboxylase, involved in auxin production of Azospirillum brasilense. J Bacteriol 189:7626–7633. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Sreenivasulu N, Harshavardhan VT, Govind G, Seiler C, Kohli A (2012) Contrapuntal role of ABA: does it mediate stress tolerance or plant growth retardation under long-term drought stress? Gene 506:265–273. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Szabados L, Savouré A (2010) Proline: a multifunctional amino acid. Trends Plant Sci 15:89–97. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Todaka D, Zhao Y, Yoshida T, Kudo M, Kidokoro S, Mizoi J, Kodaira KS, Takebayashi Y, Kojima M, Sakakibara H, Toyooka K, Sato M, Fernie AR, Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (2017) Temporal and spatial changes in gene expression, metabolite accumulation and phytohormone content in rice seedlings grown under drought stress conditions. Plant J 90:61–78. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tran L-SP, Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (2010) Role of cytokinin responsive two-component system in ABA and water stress signalings. Plant Signal Behav 5:148–150CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Vacheron J, Desbrosses G, Bouffaud M-L, Touraine B, Moënne-Loccoz Y, Muller D, Legendre L, Wisniewski-Dyé F, Prigent-Combaret C (2013) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and root system functioning. Front Plant Sci 4:356. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Vaishnav A, Kumari S, Jain S, Varma A, Tuteja N, Choudhary DK (2016) PGPR-mediated expression of salt tolerance gene in soybean through volatiles under sodium nitroprusside. J Basic Microbiol 56:1274–1288. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. van der Weele CM (2000) Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under water deficit studied by control of water potential in nutrient-agar media. J Exp Bot 51:1555–1562. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Vejan P, Abdullah R, Khadiran T, Ismail S, Nasrulhaq Boyce A (2016) Role of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria in agricultural sustainability—A review. Molecules 21:573. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Waadt R, Hitomi K, Nishimura N, Hitomi C, Adams SR, Getzoff ED, Schroeder JI (2014) FRET-based reporters for the direct visualization of abscisic acid concentration changes and distribution in Arabidopsis. Elife 3.
  81. Wasilewska A, Vlad F, Sirichandra C, Redko Y, Jammes F, Valon C, Frey NF, Leung J (2008) An update on abscisic acid signaling in plants and more. Mol Plant 1:198–217. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wilkinson S, Kudoyarova GR, Veselov DS, Arkhipova TN, Davies WJ (2012) Plant hormone interactions: innovative targets for crop breeding and management. J Exp Bot 63:3499–3509. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Xiong D-M, Liu Z, Chen H, Xue JT, Yang Y, Chen C, Ye LM (2014) Profiling the dynamics of abscisic acid and ABA-glucose ester after using the glucosyltransferase UGT71C5 to mediate abscisic acid homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. J Pharm Anal 4:190–196. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Yamaguchi S (2008) Gibberellin metabolism and its regulation. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:225–251. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Yang J, Zhang J, Wang Z, Zhu Q, Wang W (2001) Hormonal changes in the grains of rice subjected to water stress during grain filling. Plant Physiol 127:315–323CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Yasmin S, Hafeez FY, Mirza MS, Rasul M, Arshad HMI, Zubair M, Iqbal M (2017) Biocontrol of bacterial leaf blight of Rice and profiling of secondary metabolites produced by Rhizospheric Pseudomonas aeruginosa BRp3. Front Microbiol 8:1895. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Zwack PJ, Rashotte AM (2015) Interactions between cytokinin signalling and abiotic stress responses. J Exp Bot 66:4863–4871. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesBirla Institute of Technology and Science (Pilani)HyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations