African Adansonia digitata fruit pulp (baobab) modifies provitamin A carotenoid bioaccessibility from composite pearl millet porridges
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Food-to-food fortification of staple cereal products using nutrient-dense plants shows promise to address multiple micronutrient deficiencies including vitamin A, iron and zinc in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is limited information on the potential interaction effects that such food-to-food fortified strategies may have on individual micronutrient bioavailability. The main objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of incorporating Adansonia digitata (baobab fruit pulp), a mineral-rich plant material, on the delivery of carotenoids from a composite cereal porridge. Formulations of native fruit/vegetable-cereal composites were screened for interactions which could influence both bioaccessibility and subsequent intestinal uptake of provitamin A carotenoids. Proportions of pearl millet flour and plant materials were dry blended to provide composite cereal porridges with total provitamin A carotenoid concentrations ranging from 3590.7 ± 23.4 to 3698.5 ± 26.5 μg/100 g (fw) and baobab concentrations ranging from 0 to 25% (dw).While there were no significant differences in provitamin A carotenoid bioaccessibility from porridge formulations containing 5 or 15% baobab, inclusion of 25% baobab resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in bioaccessibility (13.3%) as compared to the control (23.8%). Despite the reduced bioaccessibility, 6 h uptake efficiency of provitamin A carotenoids by Caco-2 human intestinal cells was not significantly altered by 25% baobab inclusion. These findings suggest that the inhibitory effects on carotenoid micellarization (bioaccessibility) observed with increased baobab addition may not ultimately limit the bioavailability of carotenoids.
KeywordsProvitamin A carotenoids Bioaccessibility Baobab Micronutrients Fortification
This study was funded by the USAID Food Processing & Post Harvest Innovation Lab (FPLAID-0AA-L-14-00003) and Sorghum & Millet Innovation Lab (SMILAID-0AA-A-13-00047) through United States Agency for International Development (USAID).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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