Advertisement

A comprehensive analysis of 13C isotope ratios data of authentic honey types produced in China using the EA-IRMS and LC-IRMS

  • JinZhong XuEmail author
  • Xiuhong Liu
  • Bin Wu
  • YanZhong Cao
Original Article

Abstract

In the current study, we have comprehensively analyzed different kinds of pure honey which was produced in various areas in China according to δ13C-EA -IRMS (AOAC method 998.12) and δ13C-LC-IRMS (proposed by the Intertek laboratory in Europe) methods. As for the δ13C-EA -IRMS method, the study was confirmed that the C4 sugar of all authentic honey samples was qualified. Further inter-laboratory comparison experiments using the δ13C-LC-IRMS method found that all authentic honey samples had Δδ13C (‰) values within the naturally occurring range of ± 1‰ for Δδ13C (‰) fru-glu. However, about 70% samples had Δδ13C (‰) values outside the range of ± 2.1‰ for Δδ13C (‰) max., indicating that a large proportion of pure honey in China can’t pass the δ13C-LC-IRMS test, although these honeys were extracted from unadulterated sources. Based on the present findings, we consider that the δ13C-LC-IRMS method is not appropriate to reliably detect adulterated honeys with C3 sugars in China.

Keywords

Elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) Liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) Pure honey Adulterated honey C4 sugar C3 sugar 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research project was supported by the by the Jiangxi provincial Natural Science Foundation for Youths of China (20161BAB213096).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. AOAC (2000) Official methods of analysis. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MDGoogle Scholar
  2. Bertelli D, Lolli M, Papotti G, Bortolotti L, Serra G, Plessi M (2010) Detection of honey adulteration by sugar syrups using one-dimensional and two-dimensional high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance. J Agric Food Chem 58:8495–8501.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf101460t CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Cabanero AI, Recio JL, Ruperez M (2006) Liquid chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry: a new perspective on honey adulteration detection. J Agric Food Chem 54:9719–9727.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf062067x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Carbohydrates and the sweetness of honey (2010) National Honey Board, 303, 776–2337, 1–4. www.nhb.org
  5. Cordella C, Militao JSLT, Climent MC, Drajnudel P, Carbol-Bass D (2005) Detection and quantification of honey adulteration via direct incorporation of sugar syrups or bee-feeding: preliminary study using high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and chemometrics. Anal Chim Acta 531:239–248.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2004.10.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Du B, Wu LM, Xue XF, Chen LZ, Li Y, Zhao J, Cao W (2015) Rapid screening of multiclass syrup adulterants in honey by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 63:6614–6623.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b01410 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Elflein L, Raezke KP (2008) Improved detection of honey adulteration by measuring differences between 13C/12C stable carbon isotope ratios of protein and sugar compounds with a combination of elemental analyzer—isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography—isotope ratio mass spectrometry (δ13C-EA/LC-IRMS). Apidologie 39:574–587.  https://doi.org/10.1051/apido:2008042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Földahzi G (1994) Analysis and quantification of sugars in honey of different botanical origin using high performance liquid chromatography. Acta Aliment 23:299–311Google Scholar
  9. Karabagias IK, Casiello G, Kontakos S, Louppis AP, Longobardi F, Kontominas MG (2016) Investigating the impact of botanical origin and harvesting period on carbon stable isotope ratio values (13C/12C) and different parameter analysis of Greek unifloral honeys: a chemometric approach for correct botanical discrimination. Int J Food Sci Technol 51:2460–2467.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.13227 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kelly JD, Petisco C, Downey G (2006) Application of Fourier transform midinfrared spectroscopy to the discrimination between Irish artisanal honey and such honey adulterated with various sugar syrups. J Agric Food Chem 54:6166–6171.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0613785 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. National Standard of the People’s Republic of China (2002) Method for the determination of high fructose starch syrup in honey-thin layer chromatographic method. GB/T 18932.2-2002Google Scholar
  12. Oroian M, Ropciuc S, Paduret S (2018) Honey adulteration detection using raman spectroscopy. Food Anal Methods 11:959–968.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-017-1072-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Padovan GJ, De Jong D, Rodrigues LP, Marchini JS (2003) Detection of adulteration of commercial honey samples by the 13C/12C isotopic ratio. Food Chem 82:633–636.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00504-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Padovan GJ, Rodrigues LP, Leme IA, Jong David D, Marchini JS (2007) Presence of C4 sugars in honey samples detected by the carbon isotope ratio measured by IRMS. Eurasian J Anal Chem 2:134–141Google Scholar
  15. Pang GF, Fan CL, Cao YZ, Zhang JJ, Li XM, Li ZY, Jia GQ (2006) Study on distribution pattern of stable carbon isotope ratio of Chinese honeys by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. J Sci Food Agric 86:315–319.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2328 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ruiz-Matute AI, Soria AC, Martinez-Castro I, Sanz MLA (2007) A new methodology based on GC–MS to detect honey adulteration with commercial syrups. J Agric Food Chem 55:7264–7269.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf070559j CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ruiz-Matute AI, Weiss M, Sammataro D, Finley J, Sanz ML (2010) Carbohydrate composition of high fructose corn syrups (HFCS) used for bee feeding effect on honey composition. J Agric Food Chem 58:7317–7322.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf100758x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Simsek A, Bilsel M, Goren AC (2012) 13C/12C pattern of honey from Turkey and determination of adulteration in commercially available honey samples using EA-IRMS. Food Chem 130:1115–1121.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.08.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wang JP, Guo J, Chen Y, Wang HY, Li R, Wang YL (2011) Assay of beta- fructofuranosidase activity in honey by high performance liquid chromatography. J Bee 12:21–23Google Scholar
  20. Xu JZ, Liu XH, Wang YJ, Wang ZC, Zhou PP, Liu HD (2013) A method to fast detect the marker in beet syrup adulterated in honey. ZL 2013107003474.8Google Scholar
  21. Xue XF, Wang Q, Li Y, Wu LM, Chen LZ, Zhao J, Liu FM (2013) 2-Acetylfuran-3-glucopyranoside as a novel marker for the detection of honey adulterated with rice syrup. J Agric Food Chem 61:7488–7493.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf401912u CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SinoUnison Technology Co. LtdNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal UniversityNanchangPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Nanjing Customs Animal, Plant and Food Inspection CenterNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Qinhuangdao Customs Animal, Plant and Food Inspection CenterQinhuangdaoPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations