In-vitro evaluation of antimicrobial and insect repellent potential of supercritical-carbon dioxide (SCF-CO2) extracts of selected botanicals against stored product pests and foodborne pathogens
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In the present study, the antimicrobial and the insect repellent activity of 16 botanical extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 (SCF) extraction were evaluated. The present investigation was conducted as there is a necessity for exploration of natural botanical extracts that target both stored product insects and microbes. The antimicrobial activity was studied by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods against ten microbial species, including Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Listeria monocytogenes), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica), and fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus paraciticus, Aspergillus ochraceous, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium verrucosum). Repellency assay was carried out by area preference method against three coleopteran insects (Tribolium castaneum, Rhyzopertha dominica and Sitophilus oryzae). Among all the extracts, thyme and ajwain were effective against all the tested bacteria with a minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 256–1024 µg/mL. Hop extract resulted in better antibacterial activity against all the tested Gram-positive bacteria with a MIC of 32–64 µg/mL. Oregano, thyme and ajwain extracts showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity against all the tested fungi with MIC of 128–1024 µg/mL. Most of the extracts exhibited class V (80.1–100%) repellency against T. castaneum. Extracts of hop, ajwain and thyme were found to have strong repellency against T. castaneum and R. dominica. Therefore, SCF extracts of ajwain and thyme can be explored further for the application of bio-extracts as a growth limiting factors in a microcosm where such consortia thrive.
KeywordsFoodborne pathogens Coleopteran insects Super critical fluid extraction Insect repellency Microbial inhibition
The authors thank Director, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysuru for the support and facilities provided for this study. This research was financially supported by Department of Biotechnology, Government of India (BT/IN/Finnish/06/AP/2013).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
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