Optimum roasting conditions of argan kernels (Argania spinosa L.) for the production of high-quality edible argan oil

  • Dalila Demnati
  • Rafael Pacheco
  • Leopoldo Martínez
  • Sebastián SánchezEmail author
Original Article


Roasting is an important step in the production of edible argan oils. The effect of argan kernel roasting temperature (ranging from 150 to 200 °C) and time (from 10 to 50 min), on oil yield, contents in total phenolic compounds, α- and γ-tocopherol, and oxidative stability, was researched using response surface methodology. Increases in roasting temperature and time have a significant effect on all the responses. This study showed that the optimum roasting conditions of argan kernel (indirect heat by convection) for the production of edible argan oils were 150 °C and 50 min, which allowed reaching a maximum oil yield of 32.45%. Edible argan oil, obtained under these conditions, had a content of total phenolic compounds of 78.01 mg/kg, α- and γ-tocopherol of 30.28 and 495.03 mg/kg, respectively, and an oxidative stability of 37.58 h. Furthermore, it presented olfactory notes of ‘almond, dried fruits, hazelnut and waffle’, with ‘sweet’ and ‘fruity’ as positive attributes, without any defect.


Argan oil Roasting Yield Chemical composition Oxidative stability Optimization 



The authors are grateful to the “Spanish International Development Cooperation Agency” (AECID) for its financial support of this work carried out by the Research Group “Bioprocesses TEP-138” (‘Junta de Andalucía’, Spain).

Compliance withe ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dalila Demnati
    • 1
  • Rafael Pacheco
    • 1
  • Leopoldo Martínez
    • 2
  • Sebastián Sánchez
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials EngineeringUniversity of JaénJaénSpain
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain

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