Advertisement

Characterization of the behavior of carotenoids from pitanga (Eugenia uniflora) and buriti (Mauritia flexuosa) during microemulsion production and in a dynamic gastrointestinal system

  • Paulo BerniEmail author
  • Ana Cristina Pinheiro
  • Ana Isabel Bourbon
  • Maura Guimarães
  • Solange G. Canniatti-Brazaca
  • Antonio A. Vicente
Original Article
  • 19 Downloads

Abstract

Uncommon tropical fruits are emerging as raw-material for new food products with health benefits. This work aimed at formulating and processing microemulsions from pitanga (Eugenia uniflora) and buriti (Mauritia flexuosa) fruits, since they are very rich in carotenoids (particularly lycopene and β-carotene), in order to encapsulate and increase carotenoids’ bioaccessibility. Pitanga and buriti microemulsions were produced by applying a direct processing (high-speed homogenization at 15,000 rpm and ultrasound with 20 kHz probe at 40% amplitude) of the whole pulp together with surfactant (Tween 80 or Whey Protein Isolate at 2%) and corn oil (5%). All treatments (HSH—US for 0–4, 4–0, 4–4, 4–8 min–min) applied were able to increase the amount of carotenoid released. However, the processing also decreased the total amount of carotenoids in the whole pulp of studied fruits. The impact of processing during microemulsion production was not severe. The overall data suggest that the presence of surfactant and oil during processing may protect the carotenoids in fruits and microemulsions. Final recovery of total carotenoids, after passing the samples through a dynamic gastrointestinal system that simulates the human digestion, was higher for microemulsions than for whole pulps. High losses of total carotenoids in buriti and β-carotene and lycopene in pitanga occurred during jejunum and ileum phases. The present work confirms that it is possible to increase β-carotene and lycopene bioaccessibility from fruits by directly processing microemulsions (p < 0.01).

Keywords

Dynamic digestive system Tropical fruits Bioavailability Beta-carotene Lycopene Structure design 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the São Paulo Research Foundation—FAPESP through research funding [Grant #2015/15507-9] and Ph.D. scholarship for Paulo Berni [Grant #2014/15119-6] and a Research Internships Abroad (BEPE) support [Grant #2016/13355-0]. The author Ana C. Pinheiro is recipient of a fellowship from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) [Grant SFRH/BPD/101181/2014].

References

  1. Amiri-Rigi A, Abbasi S (2017) Stability assessment of lycopene microemulsion prepared using tomato industrial waste against various processing conditions. J Sci Food Agric 97:4922–4928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amorim-Carrilho KT, Cepeda A, Fente C, Regal P (2014) Review of methods for analysis of carotenoids. Trends Analyt Chem 56:49–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anese M, Bot F, Panozzo A, Mirolo G, Lippe G (2015) Effect of ultrasound treatment, oil addition and storage time on lycopene stability and in vitro bioaccessibility of tomato pulp. Food Chem 172:685–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Azevedo-Meleiro C, Rodriguez-Amaya DB (2004) Confirmation of the identity of the carotenoids of tropical fruits by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS. J Food Compos Anal 17:385–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berni P, Chitchumroonchokchai C, Canniatti-Brazaca SG, de Moura FF, Failla ML (2014) Impact of genotype and cooking style on the content, retention, and bioaccessibility of β-carotene in biofortified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) conventionally bred in Brazil. J Agric Food Chem 62:6677–6686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blanquet-Diot S, Soufi M, Rambeau M, Rock E, Alric M (2009) Digestive stability of xanthophylls exceeds that of carotenes as studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal system. J Nutr 139:876–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buggenhout SV, Ahrne L, Alminger M et al (2012) Structural design of natural plant-based foods to promote nutritional quality. Trends Food Sci Technol 24:47–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carail M, Fabiano-Tixier A, Meullemiestre A, Chemat F, Caris-Veyrat C (2015) Effects of high power ultrasound on all-E-b-carotene, newly formed compounds analysis by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Ultrason Sonochem 26:200–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davidov-Pardo G, Gumus CE, McClements DJ (2016) Lutein-enriched emulsion-based delivery systems: influence of pH and temperature on physical and chemical stability. Food Chem 196:821–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. de Paz E, Martín A, Mateos E, Cocero MJ (2013) Production of water-soluble β-carotene micellar formulations by novel emulsion techniques. Chem Eng Process 74:90–96Google Scholar
  11. de Rosso VV, Mercadante AZ (2007) Identification and quantification of carotenoids, by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS, from Amazonian fruits. J Agric Food Chem 55:5062–5072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dube N, Mashurabad PC, Hossain F et al (2018) β-Carotene bioaccessibility from biofortified maize (Zea mays) is related to its density and is negatively influenced by lutein and zeaxanthin. Food Funct 9:379–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Failla ML, Chitchumroonchokchai C (2005) In vitro models as tools for screening the relative bioavailabilities of provitamin A carotenoids in foods. Harvestplus, Technical monograph 3Google Scholar
  14. Failla ML, Chitchumroonchokchai C, Ferruzzi M et al (2014) Unsaturated fatty acids promote bioaccessibility and basolateral secretion of carotenoids and α-tocopherol by Caco-2 cells. Food Funct 5(6):1101–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gomes GVL, Sola MR, Marostegan LFP et al (2017) Physico-chemical stability and in vitro digestibility of beta-carotene loaded lipid nanoparticles of cupuacu butter (Theobroma grandiflorum) produced by the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method. J Food Eng 192:93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goula AM, Ververi M, Adamopoulou A, Kaderides K (2017) Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids from pomegranate wastes using vegetable oils. Ultrason Sonochem 34:821–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hejri A, Gharanjig K, Khosravi A, Hejazi M (2013) Effect of surfactants on kinetics of β-carotene photodegradation in emulsions. Chem Eng Commun 200(3):437–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hu H, Xing L, Hu Y et al (2016) Effects of regenerated cellulose on oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate. Food Hydrocoll 52:38–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kentish S, Feng H (2014) Applications of power ultrasound in food processing. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 5:263–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kilcrease J, Collins AM, Richins RD, Timlin JA, O’Connell MA (2013) Multiple microscopic approaches demonstrate linkage between chromoplast architecture and carotenoid composition in diverse capsicum annum fruit. Plant J 76(6):1074–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kopec RE, Gleize B, Borel P, Desmarchelierd C, Caris-Veyrat C (2017) Are lutein, lycopene, and β-carotene lost through the digestive process? Food Funct 8:1494–1503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li Q, Li T, Liu C et al (2017) Enhancement of carotenoid bioaccessibility from tomatoes using excipient emulsions: influence of particle size. Food Biophys.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11483-017-9474-7 Google Scholar
  23. Liu X, Bi J, Xiao H, McClements DJ (2015) Increasing carotenoid bioaccessibility from yellow peppers using excipient emulsions: impact of lipid type and thermal processing. J Agric Food Chem 63:8534–8543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mashurabad PC, Palika R, Jyrwa YW, Bhaskarachary K, Pullakhandam R (2017) Dietary fat composition, food matrix and relative polarity modulate the micellarization and intestinal uptake of carotenoids from vegetables and fruits. J Food Sci Technol 54(2):333–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McClements DJ (2015) Nanoscale nutrient delivery systems for food applications: improving bioactive dispersibility, stability, and bioavailability. J Food Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12919 Google Scholar
  26. McClements DJ, Gumus CE (2016) Natural emulsifiers—biosurfactants, phospholipids, biopolymers, and colloidal particles: molecular and physicochemical basis of functional performance. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 234:3–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nimalaratne C, Savard P, Gauthier SF, Schieber A, Wu J (2015) Bioaccessibility and digestive stability of carotenoids in cooked eggs studied using a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model. J Agric Food Chem 63:2956–2962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Petry FC, Mercadante AZ (2017) Impact of in vitro digestion phases on the stability and bioaccessibility of carotenoids and their esters in mandarin pulps. Food Funct 8(11):3951–3963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pinheiro AC, Lad M, Silva HD et al (2013) Unravelling the behaviour of curcumin nanoemulsions during in vitro digestion: effect of the surface charge. Soft Matter 9:3147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Porcu MO, Rodriguez-Amaya DB (2008) Variation in the carotenoid composition of the lycopene-rich Brazilian fruit Eugenia uniflora L. Plant Food Hum Nutr 63:195–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pugliese A, O’Callaghan Y, Tundis R et al (2013) In vitro investigation of the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from raw, frozen and boiled red chili peppers (Capsicum annuum). Eur J Nutr 53:501–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rodriguez-Amaya DB (2001) A guide to carotenoid analysis in foods. ILSI Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  33. Saini RK, Nile SH, Park SW (2015) Carotenoids from fruits and vegetables: chemistry, analysis, occurrence, bioavailability and biological activities. Food Res Int 76:735–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Salvia-Trujillo L, McClements DJ (2016) Enhancement of lycopene bioaccessibility from tomato juice using excipient emulsions: influence of lipid droplet size. Food Chem 210:295–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schweiggert RM, Mezger D, Schimpf F, Steingass CB, Carle R (2012) Influence of chromoplast morphology on carotenoid bioaccessibility of carrot, mango, papaya, and tomato. Food Chem 135:2736–2742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sun Y, Mab G, Ye X, Kakuda Y, Meng R (2010) Stability of all-trans-b-carotene under ultrasound treatment in a model system: effects of different factors, kinetics and newly formed compounds. Ultrason Sonochem 17:654–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Van Loo-Bouwman CA, Naber THJ, Minekus M et al (2014) Food matrix effects on bioaccessibility of β-carotene can be measured in an in vitro gastrointestinal model. J Agric Food Chem 62:950–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhang R, Zhang Z, Zhang H, Decker EA, McClements DJ (2015) Influence of emulsifier type on gastrointestinal fate of oil-in-water emulsions containing anionic dietary fiber (pectin). Food Hydrocoll 45:175–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhang R, Zhang Z, Zou L (2016) Impact of lipid content on the ability of excipient emulsions to increase carotenoid bioaccessibility from natural sources (raw and cooked carrots). Food Biophys 11:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agri-Food Industry, Food and Nutrition, Luiz de Queiroz College of AgricultureUniversity of São PauloPiracicabaBrazil
  2. 2.Centre of Biological EngineeringUniversity of MinhoBragaPortugal
  3. 3.Instituto de Biologia Experimental e TecnológicaOeirasPortugal

Personalised recommendations