E-sensing, calibrated PSL, and improved ESR techniques discriminate irradiated fresh grapefruits and lemons
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Grapefruit and lemon were exposed to phytosanitary irradiation doses of 0, 0.4, and 1 kGy, and then electronic-sensing screening of irradiation status and identification of radiation-induced ESR markers were conducted during 20 days storage. Codex standard photostimulated luminescence measurement (PSL1) was not a reliable indicator of irradiation status. Electronic tongue and electronic nose, however, showed potential as screening tools for discriminating irradiated fruits from non-irradiated counterparts based on principal component analysis of taste attributes and flavor patterns. Calibrated PSL approach clearly distinguished irradiated from non-irradiated samples based on the PSL ratio (PSL2/PSL1). Verification of irradiation status by electron spin resonance spectroscopy revealed clear paramagnetic centers from both irradiated fruits samples and ethanol-vacuum drying pretreatment improved radiation-induced ESR signal detection; not prominent enough in 0.4 kGy-irradiated commodities during 20 days of storage. Peel parts of both fruits showed high limonene which proportionally increased with irradiation doses (p < 0.05 kGy).
KeywordsCitrus Phytosanitary irradiation Detection Electronic sensing Volatiles
This research was supported by Kyungpook National University Research Fund, 2016.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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