E-sensing, calibrated PSL, and improved ESR techniques discriminate irradiated fresh grapefruits and lemons

  • Yunhee Jo
  • Kashif Ameer
  • Namhyeok Chung
  • Yoon-Han Kang
  • Dong U. Ahn
  • Joong-Ho KwonEmail author
Original Article


Grapefruit and lemon were exposed to phytosanitary irradiation doses of 0, 0.4, and 1 kGy, and then electronic-sensing screening of irradiation status and identification of radiation-induced ESR markers were conducted during 20 days storage. Codex standard photostimulated luminescence measurement (PSL1) was not a reliable indicator of irradiation status. Electronic tongue and electronic nose, however, showed potential as screening tools for discriminating irradiated fruits from non-irradiated counterparts based on principal component analysis of taste attributes and flavor patterns. Calibrated PSL approach clearly distinguished irradiated from non-irradiated samples based on the PSL ratio (PSL2/PSL1). Verification of irradiation status by electron spin resonance spectroscopy revealed clear paramagnetic centers from both irradiated fruits samples and ethanol-vacuum drying pretreatment improved radiation-induced ESR signal detection; not prominent enough in 0.4 kGy-irradiated commodities during 20 days of storage. Peel parts of both fruits showed high limonene which proportionally increased with irradiation doses (p < 0.05 kGy).


Citrus Phytosanitary irradiation Detection Electronic sensing Volatiles 



This research was supported by Kyungpook National University Research Fund, 2016.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Ahn DU, Jo C, Du M, Olson DG, Nam KC (2000) Quality characteristics of pork patties irradiated and stored in different packaging and storage conditions. Meat Sci 56:203–209. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahn JJ, Akram K, Jo DJ, Kwon JH (2012) Investigation of different factors affecting the electron spin resomance-based characterization of gamma-irradiated fresh, white, and red ginseng. J Ginseng Res 36:308–313. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahn JJ, Sanyal B, Akram K, Kwon JH (2014) Alcoholic extraction enables epr analysis to characterize radiation-induced cellulosic signals in spices. J Agric Food Chem 62:11089–11098. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akram K, Ahn JJ, Kwon JH (2012a) Analytical methods for the identification of irradiated foods. In: Belotserkovsky E, Ostaltsov Z (eds). Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, pp 1–48Google Scholar
  5. Akram K, Ahn JJ, Yoon SR, Kim GR, Kwon JH (2012b) Quality attributes of Pleurotus eryngii following gamma irradiation. Postharvest Biol Technol 66:42–47. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chung N, Jo Y, Joe MH, Jeong MH, Jeong YJ, Kwon JH (2017) Rice vinegars of different origins: discriminative characteristics based on solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, an electronic nose, electronic tongue and sensory evaluation. J Inst Brew 123:159–166. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Delincée H, Soika C (2002) Improvement of the ESR detection of irradiated food containing cellulose employing a simple extraction method. Radiat Phys Chem 63:437–441. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. EN 1787 (2000) Foodstuffs-detection of irradiated food containing cellulose by ESR spectroscopy. European Committee of Standardization (CEN), BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  9. EN 13708 (2001) Foodstuffs-detection of irradiated food containing crystalline sugar by ESR spectroscopy. European Committee of Standardization (CEN), BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  10. EN 1788 (2001) Foodstuffs-thermoluminescence detection of irradiated food from which silicate minerals can be isolated. European Committee of Standardization (CEN), BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  11. EN 13751 (2009) Foodstuffs-detection of irradiated food using photostimulated luminescence. European Committee of Standardization (CEN), BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  12. Fan X, Mattheis JP (2001) 1-Methylcyclopropene and storage temperature influence responses of ‘Gala’apple fruit to gamma irradiation. Postharvest Biol Technol 23:143–151. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Farkas J, Mohácsi-Farkas C (2011) History and future of food irradiation. Trends Food Sci Technol 22:121–126. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jo Y, Sanyal B, Chung N, Lee HG, Park Y, Park HJ, Kwon JH (2015) Calibrated photostimulated luminescence is an effective approach to identify irradiated orange during storage. Radiat Phys Chem 111:81–86. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jo Y, Chung N, Park SW, Noh BS, Jeong YJ, Kwon JH (2016) Application of E-tongue, E-nose, and MS-E-nose for discriminating aged vinegars based on taste and aroma profiles. Food Sci Biotechnol 25:1313–1318. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Khan AA, Khan HM, Delincee H (2002) Identification of irradiated spices using the novel technique of DNA comet assay. J Food Sci 67:493–496. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kim JH, Ahn HJ, Yook HS, Kim KS, Rhee MS, Ryu GH, Byun MW (2004) Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce. Radiat Phys Chem 69:179–187. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim GR, Akram K, Ahn JJ, Kwon JH (2012) Identification of gamma ray and electron-beam irradiated wheat after different processing treatments. J Cereal Sci 56:347–351. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu Y, Heying E, Tanumihardjo SA (2012) History, global distribution, and nutritional importance of citrus fruits. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 11:530–545. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lota ML, de Rocca SD, Tomi F, Jacquemond C, Casanova J (2002) Volatile components of peel and leaf oils of lemon and lime species. J Agric Food Chem 50:796–805. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sanyal B, Ahn JJ, Maeng JH, Kyung HK, Lim HK, Sharma A, Kwon JH (2014) An improved approach to identify irradiated spices using electronic nose, FTIR, and EPR spectroscopy. J Food Sci 79:C1656–C1664. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sholom S, McKeever SWS (2016) Emergency EPR dosimetry technique using vacuum-stored dry nails. Radiat Meas 88:41–47. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. WHO (1981) Wholesomeness of irradiated food. Report of a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee Technical Report Series 659, World Health Organization, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  24. Winquist F, Arwin H, Lund E, Forster R, Day C, Lundstrom I (1995) Screening of irradiated tomatoes by means of an electronic nose. In: 8th International conference on solid-state sensors and actuators, and eurosensors IX. Transducers’ 95, vol 1. IEEE, pp 691–694.
  25. Yoo ZW, Kim NS, Lee DS (2004) Comparative analyses of the flavors from hallabong (Citrus sphaerocarpa) with lemon, orange and grapefruit by spte and hs-spme combined with GC-MS. Bull Korean Chem Soc 25:271–279. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Food Science and BiotechnologyKyungpook National UniversityDaeguSouth Korea
  2. 2.Health Research DepartmentHealth and Environment Institute of DaeguDaeguSouth Korea
  3. 3.Institute of Food and Nutritional SciencesPMAS-Arid Agriculture UniversityRawalpindiPakistan
  4. 4.Department of Food Processing and DistributionGangneung-Wonju National UniversityWonju-siSouth Korea
  5. 5.Department of Animal ScienceIowa State UniversityAmesUSA

Personalised recommendations