Marine lizardfish (Harpadon nehereus) meal concentrate in preparation of ready-to-eat protein and calcium rich extruded snacks

  • Priyadarshini Chakraborty
  • Sucheta Sahoo
  • Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya
  • Minakshi GhoshEmail author
Original Article


Bombay duck (Harpadon nehereus) a high protein fish, is one of the significant estuarine fish of the West Coast of India. Apart from being rich in protein the fish is also a store house of important minerals. This study was conducted to determine the physicochemical properties of the fish meal and utilize it to produce protein rich extruded snacks by twin screw extrusion technology at optimized parameters of 110 °C temperature, 16% moisture and 350 RPM screw speed. Protein of the fish meal concentrate was found to be around 54 g/100 g, mineral content particularly calcium around 2100.32 mg/100 g, phosphorous 240 mg/100 g and substantial amount of potassium, sodium, iron and zinc. Amino acid profile revealed presence of some essential amino acids. 1-D gel electrophoresis showed presence of low and medium kDa proteins ranging between 10 and 50 kDa. Functional and physicochemical property studies of extrudates revealed that 15% fish meal incorporation gave highest expansion ratio of 3.46. Addition of Bombay duck fish meal to extruded snack preparations had resulted in good taste and texture. The protein contents of the products ranged from 9.35 to 21.00 g/100 g. The results indicated that fish meal can be useful for preparing low cost protein rich food.


Bombay duck Fish meal concentrate Amino acid profile SDS-PAGE Texture profile analysis Extruded snacks 



The authors are thankful to Inspire Programme, Department of Science and Technology, Government of India for providing financial support for the research work. Authors also acknowledge ICAR-Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Barrackpore, Kolkata, India for extending technical facilities.


Funding was provided by Department of Science and Technology, Inspire Fellowship (Grant No. IF 120166).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors disclose no conflict of interest in publishing this paper. There is no body to contradict this manuscript.

Ethical approval

In the absence of concerned Ethical Committee, the study was undertaken after the approval by the Ph.D. committee of School of Community Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur consisting of members (Prof. Amit Kumar Das, Dean, Academic Affairs, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Shibpur, Prof. Partha Sarathy Roy, Head, School of Community Science and Technology, IIEST, Shibpur, Prof. N. R. Bandyopadhyay, School of Material Science and Engineering, IIEST, Shibpur, Prof. B. K. Ghorai, Department of Chemistry IIEST, Shibpur, Dr. P. Biswas, Department of Chemistry, IIEST, Shibpur and Prof. P. Chattopadhyay, former Professor, Dept. of Food Technology and Biochemical Engineering, Jadavpur University). The study did not involve animal feeding and subsequent sacrifice of the animal.


  1. American Public Health Association (APHA) (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, 21st edn. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. Anton AA, Luciano FB (2007) Instrumental texture evaluation of extruded snack foods: a review Evaluación Instrumental De Textura En Alimentos Extruidos: una Revisión. Ciencia y Tecnologia Aliment 5(4):245–251. Google Scholar
  3. AOAC (2006) Official methods of analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC 18th edn, pp 20–22Google Scholar
  4. Bhattacharya T, Ghorai T, Dora KC, Sarkar S, Chowdhury S (2016) Influence of chemical preservatives on the quality and shelf-life of dried Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus). Asian J Anim Sci 11(1):1–8. Google Scholar
  5. Bhosale BP, Chogale ND, Dhamagaye HB, Bhatkar VR, Bondre RD (2014) Preparation of Bombay duck chutney from dried Bombay duck fish Harpodon neherus. Asian J Adv Basic Sci 2(2):66–71Google Scholar
  6. Bligh E, Dyer W (1959) A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 37(8):911–917Google Scholar
  7. Capriles VD, Soares RAM, Pinto ES, Silva MEM, Arêas JAG (2009) Effect of fructans-based fat replacer on chemical composition, starch digestibility and sensory acceptability of corn snacks. Int J Food Sci Technol 44(10):1895–1901. Google Scholar
  8. Careche M, Alvarez C, Tejada M (1995) Suwari and Kamaboko sardine gels: Effect of heat treatment on solubility of networks. J Agric Food Chem 43(4):1002–1010Google Scholar
  9. Carvalho AV (2012) Processing and characterization of an extruded snack made from broken rice and broken common bean flour. Braz J Food Technol 15:72–83. Google Scholar
  10. Deshpande HW, Poshadri A (2011) Physical and sensory characteristics of extruded snacks prepared from Foxtail millet based composite flours. Int Food Res J 18(2):751–756Google Scholar
  11. Ding QB, Ainsworth P, Tucker G, Marson H (2005) The effect of extrusion conditions on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of rice-based expanded snacks. J Food Eng 66(3):283–289. Google Scholar
  12. Ganesan P, Rathnakumar K, Brita NA, Vijayarahavan V (2017) Improvement of nutritional value of extruded snack product by incorporation of blanched dried fish powder from sardine and Lizard fish and selection by organoleptic evaluation. J Entomol Zool Stud 5(6):2552–2554Google Scholar
  13. Gujska E, Khan K (1990) Effect of temperature on properties of extrudates from high starch fractions of Navy, Pinto and Garbanzo Beans. J Food Sci 55(2):466–469. Google Scholar
  14. Guy R (2001) Extrusion Cooking: Technologies and Applications. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Sawston. Google Scholar
  15. Ilo S, Berghofer E (1999) Kinetics of colour changes during extrusion cooking of maiz grits. J Food Eng 39(1):73–80Google Scholar
  16. Ishida Y, Fujita T, Asai K (1981) New detection and separation method for amino acids by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromarogr 204:143–148Google Scholar
  17. Jin T, Wu Y, Wang Q (2012) Production and characteristics of protein hydrolysates from bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus). J Food Process Preserv 36(1):30–37. Google Scholar
  18. Justen AP, Franco MLRS, Monteiro ARG, Mikcha JMG, Gasparino E, Delbem AB (2011) Inclusión de harina de pescado en snacks. Infopesca Int 47:35–38Google Scholar
  19. Kakatkar A, Sharma A, Venugopal V (2003) Hydration of muscle proteins of Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus) during acetic acid-induced gelation and characteristics of the gel dispersion. Food Chem 83(1):99–106. Google Scholar
  20. Laemmli UK (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227(5259):680–685. Google Scholar
  21. Longvah T, Ananthan R, Bhaskarachary K, Venkaiah K (2017) Indian food composition tables. National Institute of Nutrition, HyderabadGoogle Scholar
  22. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275Google Scholar
  23. Manzi P, Aguzzi A, Pizzoferrato L (2001) Nutritional value of mushrooms widely consumed in Italy. Food Chem 73(3):321–325. Google Scholar
  24. Nazir DJ, Magar NG (1965) Harpodon nehereus and changes occurring in the nutritive value of dried Bombay ducks on storage. Fish Technol 2:170–179Google Scholar
  25. Park SH, Lee HJ, Yoon IS, Lee GW, Kim JS, Heu MS (2016) Protein functionality of concentrates prepared from yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) roe by cook-dried process. Food Sci Biotechnol 25(6):1569–1575. Google Scholar
  26. Paula AM, Conti-Silva AC (2014) Texture profile and correlation between sensory and instrumental analyses on extruded snacks. J Food Eng 121(1):9–14. Google Scholar
  27. Saha S (2014) Extraction of protein from Hoki and Barracouta fish heads for utilisation as functional ingredients. A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Food Technology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  28. Santosa BA, Widowati S (2008) Characteristics of extrudate from four varieties of corn with aquadest addition. Indones J Agric 1(2):85–94Google Scholar
  29. Sawant A, Thaker N, Swami S, Divate A (2013) Physical and sensory characteristics of ready-to-eat prepared from finger millet based composite mixer by extrusion cooking. Agric Eng Int CIGR J 15(1):100–105Google Scholar
  30. Shah FUH, Sharif MK, Butt MS, Shahid M (2012) Development of protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched extruded corn snacks. J Texture Stud 48(3):221–230. Google Scholar
  31. Shahmohammadi HR, Bakar J, Russly AR, Noranizan MA, Mirhosseini H (2014) Puffed corn–fish snack development by extrusion technology. Iran J Fish Sci 13(3):748–760Google Scholar
  32. Shirani G, Ganesharanee R (2009) Extruded products with Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecium) chickpea and rice: physical properties, sensory acceptability and glycaemic index. J Food Eng 90(1):44–52. Google Scholar
  33. Siddique MAM, Mojumder P, Zamal H (2012) Proximate composition of three commercially available marine dry fishes (Harpodon nehereus, Johnius dussumieri and Lepturacanthus savala). Am J Food Technol 7(7):429–436Google Scholar
  34. Sotelo CG, Piñeiro C, Pérez-Martín RI, Gallardo JM (2000) Analysis of fish and squid myofibrillar proteins by capillary sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis: actin and myosin quantification. Eur Food Res Technol 211(6):443–448. Google Scholar
  35. Souza E, Luiza M, Souza RD, Abreu D, Campelo V, Yoshida GM, Monteiro G (2015) Extruded snacks with the addition of different fish meals. Food Sci Technol 35(4):683–689. Google Scholar
  36. Wang N, Bhirud PR, Tyler RT (1999) Extrusion texturization of air-classified pea protein. J Food Sci 64(3):509–513. Google Scholar
  37. Yanniotis S, Petraki A, Soumpasi E (2007) Effect of pectin and wheat fibers on quality attributes of extruded cornstarch. J Food Eng 80:594–599Google Scholar
  38. Zodape ST, Mukhopadhyay S, Eswaran K, Reddy MP, Chikara J (2010) Enhanced yield and nutritional quality in green gram (Phaseolus radiata L.) treated with seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) extract. J Sci Ind Res 69:468–471Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Community Science and TechnologyIndian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, ShibpurHowrahIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Food Science and TechnologySambalpur UniversitySambalpurIndia

Personalised recommendations