Advertisement

Effect of microwave and oven drying processes on antioxidant activity, total phenol and phenolic compounds of kiwi and pepino fruits

  • 85 Accesses

Abstract

Kiwi and pepino fruits are most valuable fruits as they contains substantial amounts of nutrients and bioactive compounds. These fruits exhibited several health potentials such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiobesity, antihyperlipidemia, and anticancer properties. However, studies on the effect of microwave and conventional drying methods on the antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds of kiwi and pepino fruits are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the effect of microwave and oven drying methods on antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and phenolic compounds of kiwi and pepino fruits. Drying of the fruit samples was carried out using conventional (70 °C for 20 h) and microwave (720 W for 3 min) ovens. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging and colorimetric Folin–Ciocalteu assays were used to assess the antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents, respectively, of fresh and dried fruits. Both drying methods significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the moisture contents of both fruits compared to untreated controls. Concomitantly, drying methods also enhanced (p < 0.05) antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of both fruits with the highest improvement being observed for microwave-dried fruits compared to untreated controls. In addition, a significant increase was observed in catechin and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene content of kiwi and pepino after drying process. However, microwave drying method reduced the amount of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid in kiwi (ranging from 34.120 to 9.350 mg/100 g) and pepino (varied from 33.414 to 15.445 mg/100 g). Generally, the highest antioxidant activity and phenolic contents were reported in microwave oven dried samples, followed by samples dried in oven and fresh fruits. The results revealed that microwave drying could be more useful in fruit drying than conventional drying. In addition, dried kiwi and pepino fruits contains substantial quantities of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity compared to fresh fruits, and thus they are considered as healthy food.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Arslan D, Özcan MM (2010) Study the effect of sun, oven and microwave drying on quality of onion slices. LWT Food Sci Technol 43:1121–1127

  2. Benlloch-Tinoco M, Igual M, Rodrigo D, Martínez-Navarrete N (2013) Comparison of microwaves and conventional thermal treatment on enzymes activity and antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit puree. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 19:166–172

  3. Bennett LE, Jegasothy H, Konczak I, Frank D, Sudharmarajan S, Clingeleffer PR (2011) Total polyphenolics and anti-oxidant properties of selecteddried fruits and relationships to drying conditions. J Funct Foods 3:115–124

  4. Chang WH, Liu JF (2009) Effects of kiwifruit consumption on serum lipid profiles and antioxidative status in hyperlipidemic subjects. Int J Food Sci Nutr 60(8):709–716

  5. Ciemniewska-Zytkiewicz H, Brys J, Brys A, Sujka K, Koczon P (2014) Effect of roasting process on moisture content and color of Polish in shell hazelnuts. Akad Gıda 12(1):6–10

  6. Di Scala K, Vega-Galvez A, Uribe E, Oyanadel R, Miranda M, Vergara J et al (2011) Quality characteristics changes of pepino fruit (Solanum muricatum Ait) during convective drying. Int J Foods Sci Technol 46:746–753

  7. Ferguson AR, Mcrae EA (1991) Vitamin C in actinidia. Acta Hortic 297:481–487

  8. Gammon CS, Kruger R, Conlon CA, von Hurst PR, Jones B, Stonehouse W (2014) Inflammatory status modulates plasma lipid and inflammatory marker responses to kiwifruit consumption in hypercholesterolaemic men. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 24(1):91–99

  9. Gao Q-H, Wu C-S, Wang M, Xu B-N, Du L-J (2012) Effect of drying of Jujubes (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) on the contents of sugars, organic acids, α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene, and phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem 60:9642–9648

  10. Ghanem N, Mihoubi D, Kechaou N, Mihoubi NB (2012) Microwave dehydration of three citrus peel cultivars: effect on water and oilretention capacities, color, shrinkage and total phenols content. Ind Crops Prod 40:167–177

  11. Gonzalez M, Cámara M, Prohens J, Ruiz J, Torija E, Nuez F (2000) Colour and composition of improved pepino cultivars at three ripening stages. Gartenbauwissenschaft 65:83–87

  12. Herraiz FJ, Villano D, Plazas M, Vilanova S, Ferreres F, Prohens J, Moreno DA (2016) Phenolic profile and biological activities of the pepino (Solanum muricatum) fruit and its wild relative S. caripense. Int J Mol Sci 17:394–408

  13. Hsu C-C, Guo Y-R, Wang Z-H, Yin M-C (2011) Protective effects of an aqueous extract from pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) in diabetic mice. J Sci Food Agric 91:1517–1522

  14. Huyskens-Keil S, Prono-Widayat HP, Ludders A, Schreiner M (2006) Posthatvest quality of pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) fruit in controlled atmosphere storage. J Food Eng 77:628–634

  15. Izli N, Izli G, Taskin O (2017) Drying kinetics, colour, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity properties of kiwi dried by different methods. Food Measure 11:64–74

  16. Kang WY, Hong HJ, Lee YJ (2012) Anti-oxidant activities of kiwi fruit extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice. Korean J Vet Res 52(4):275–280

  17. Lee SK, Mbwambo ZH, Chung HS, Luyengi L, Games EJC, Mehta RG (1998) Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of natural products. Comb Chem High Through Screen 1:35–46

  18. Lopez J, Vega-Galvez A, Bilbao-Sainz C, Chiou B-S, Uribe E, Quispe-Fuentes I (2017) Influence of vacuum drying temperature on: physico-chemical composition and antioxidant properties of murta berries. J Food Process Eng 40(6):1–9

  19. Ma CT, Chyau C-C, Hus C-C, Kuo S-M, Chuang C-W, Lin H-H, Chen J-H (2016) Pepino polyphenolic extract improved oxidative, inflammatory and glycative stress in the sciatic nerves of diabetic mice. Food Funct 7:1111–1121

  20. Mahmoud YI (2017) Kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa) ameliorates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino mice via the activation of Nrf2 and the inhibition of NF-kB (Kiwi and gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity). Biomed Pharmacother 94:206–218

  21. Maskan M (2001) Drying, shrinkage and rehydration characteristics of kiwifruits during hot air and microwave drying. J Food Eng 48:177–182

  22. Motohashi N, Shirataki Y, Kawase M, Tani S, Sakagami H, Satoh K, Kurihara T, Nakashima H, Mucsi I, Varga A, Molnár J (2002) Cancer prevention and therapy with kiwifruit in Chinese folklore medicine: a study of kiwifruit extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 81(3):357–364

  23. Mutwali NIA, Mustafa AA, Gorafi YS, Mohamed Ahmed IA (2016) Effect of environment and genotypes on the physic chemical quality of the grains of newly developed wheat inbred lines. Food Sci Nutr 4(4):508–520

  24. Nunes JC, Lago MG, Castelo-Branco VN, Oliveira FR, Torres AG, Perrone D, Monteiro M (2016) Effect of drying method on volatile compounds, phenolic profileand antioxidant capacity of guava powders. Food Chem 197:881–890

  25. Ogura N (1993) Theory and method of preseving for food. In: Ogura N (ed) Food processing study. Kenpakusha Co., Ltd, Tokyo, pp 3–35 (in Japanese)

  26. Orikasa T, Wu L, Shiina T, Tagawa A (2008) Drying characteristics of kiwifruit during hot air drying. J Food Eng 85:303–308

  27. Ozdemir MB, Aktas M, Sevik S, Khanlari A (2017) Modeling of a convective-infrared kiwifruit drying process. Int J Hydrogen Energy 42:18005–18013

  28. Öztürk S, Şakıyan Ö, Alifakı YÖ (2017) Dielectric properties and microwave and infrared-microwave combination drying characteristics of banana and kiwifruit. J Food Process Eng 40(3):e12502

  29. Park YS, Leontowicz H, Leontowicz M, Namıesnik J, Suhaj M, Cvikrova M, Martincova O, Weisz M, Gorinstein S (2011) Comparison of the contents of bioactive compounds and the level of antioxidant activity in different kiwifruit cultivars. J Food Compos An 24:963–970

  30. Prohens J, Nuez F (2001) Improvement of mishqui (Solanum muricatum) earliness by selection and ethephon applications. Sci Hortic 87:247–259

  31. Ren W, Tang DG (1999) Extract of Solanum muricatum (Pepino/CSG) inhibits tumor growth by inducing apoptosis. Anticancer Res 19:403–408

  32. Salinero MC, Vela P, Sainz MJ (2009) Phenological growth stages of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa ‘Hayward’). Sci Hortic 121:27–31

  33. Samoticha J, Wojdyło A, Lech K (2016) The influence of different the drying methods on chemical composition and antioxidant activity in chokeberries. LWT Food Sci Technol 66:484–489

  34. Slatnar A, Klancar U, Stampar F, Veberic R (2011) Effect of drying of figs (Ficus carica L.) on the contents of sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem 59:11696–11702

  35. Sudha G, Priya MS, Shree RBI, Vadivukkarasi S (2012) Antioxidant activity of ripe and unripe pepino fruit (Solanum muricatum Aiton). J Food Sci 77(11):C1131–C1135

  36. Szychowski PJ, Lech K, Sendra-Nadal E, Hernández F, Figiel A, Wojdyło A, Carbonell-Barrachina ÁA (2018) Kinetics, biocompounds, antioxidant activity, and sensory attributes of quinces as affected by drying method. Food Chem 255:157–164

  37. Tavarini S, Degl’Innocenti E, Remorini D, Massai R, Guidi L (2008) Antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, total phenols and carotenoids changes during harvest and after storage of Hayward kiwifruit. Food Chem 107:282–288

  38. Wang ZH, Hsu CC, Yin MC (2012) Aqueous extract from pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) attenuated hyperlipidemia and cardiac oxidative stress in diabetic mice, ISRN Obes 490870

  39. Wojdyło A, Figiel A, Lech K, Nowicka P, Oszmiański J (2014) Effect of convective and vacuum–microwave dryingon the bioactive compounds, color, and antioxidant capacity of sour cherries. Food Bioprocess Technol 7:829–841

  40. Yoo KM, Lee KW, Park JB, Lee HJ, Hwang IK (2004) Variation in major antioxidants and total antioxidant activity of Yuzu (Citrusjunos SiebexTanaka) during maturation and between cultivars. J Agric Food Chem 52:5907–5913

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to extend their sincere appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for its funding this Research Group No. (RG-1439-80).

Author information

Correspondence to Mehmet Musa Özcan.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Özcan, M.M., Al Juhaimi, F., Ahmed, I.A.M. et al. Effect of microwave and oven drying processes on antioxidant activity, total phenol and phenolic compounds of kiwi and pepino fruits. J Food Sci Technol 57, 233–242 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-019-04052-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Kiwi
  • Pepino
  • Drying
  • Microwave
  • Antioxidant activity
  • Total phenol
  • Phenolic compounds
  • HPLC