Application of image analysis technique to determine cleaning of ohmic heating system for milk

  • Priyanka RangiEmail author
  • P. S. Minz
  • Gajanan P. Deshmukh
  • P. Subramani
  • Ripudaman Singh
Original Article


Cleaning of equipment is one of the major areas of concern in food industry. Image analysis technique was used to assess the cleaning effectiveness and optimize the CIP protocol for ohmic heating setup. Process parameters selected for optimization of cleaning were caustic concentration (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5%), caustic temperature (70, 75, 80 and 85 °C), acid concentration (0.00, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75%), and acid temperature (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C). Time for caustic treatment was varied from 5 to 20 min at an interval of 5 min, while time acid treatment was kept at a constant of 10 min. Taguchi orthogonal array design was used generate different combinations of acid and alkali concentration and temperature. Images of ohmic heating plates were taken before and after the cleaning procedure. MATLAB program was developed to analyze and extract Gray-Level Co-occurrence (GLCM) matrix properties from the image. Optimized combination was selected based on the highest value of desirability factor among all the experimental set of trials. Treatment with 1.5% caustic concentration at 70 °C for 5 min followed by 0.5% nitric acid concentration at 60 °C was found optimum effective CIP of the heating plates used in ohmic heating setup. GLCM properties correlation, cluster prominence, cluster shade, entropy, homogeneity and inverse difference moment normalized were found suitable for analysis of cleaning effectiveness and optimization of the CIP protocol.


Image analysis GLCM Ohmic heating CIP Optimization 



The authors acknowledge the Institute fellowship from ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana (India) after the course of research and special thanks to the workshop staff for fabrication of the setup.


  1. Albregtsen F (2008) Statistical texture measures computed from gray level coocurrence matrices. Image Processing Laboratory, Department of Informatics, University of Oslo, OsloGoogle Scholar
  2. Athreya S, Venkatesh YD (2012) Application of taguchi method for optimization of process parameters in improving the surface roughness of lathe facing operation. Int Reff J Eng Sci 1(3):13–19Google Scholar
  3. Bansal B, Chen XD (2006) Effect of temperature and power frequency on milk fouling in an ohmic heater. Food Bioprod Process 84(4):286–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barish JA, Goddard JM (2013) Anti-fouling surface modified stainless steel for food processing. Food Bioprod Process 91:352–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eşme U (2009) Application of taguchi method for the optimization of resistance spot welding process. Arab J Sci Eng 34(2):519–521Google Scholar
  6. Fryer PJ (2003) Electrical process heating. Encyclopaedia of food sciences and nutrition. Elsevier Science Ltd, Oxford, pp 3044–3049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gebejes A, Huertas R (2013) Texture characterization based on grey-level co-occurrence matrix. In: Proceedings of the conference of informatics and management sciences, vol 2(1), pp 375–378Google Scholar
  8. Gillham CR (1997) Enhanced cleaning of surfaces fouled by whey proteins. Ph.D. Thesis, University of CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  9. Goshtasby AA (2012) Image registration, advances in computer vision and pattern recognition. Springer, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Halleux DD, Piette G, Buteau ML, Dostie M (2005) Ohmic cooking of processed meats: energy evaluation and food safety considerations. Can Biosyst Eng 47(3):341–347Google Scholar
  11. Kim HJ, Choi YM, Yang AAP, Yang TCS, Taub IA, Giles J, Ditusa C, Chall S, Zoltal P (1996) Microbiological and chemical investigation of ohmic heating of particulate foods using a 5 kW ohmic system. J Food Process Pres 20:41–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Köhler H, Stoye H, Mauermann M, Weyrauch T, Majschak JP (2015) How to assess cleaning? Evaluating the cleaning performance of moving impinging jets. Food Bioprod Process 93:327–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kumari K, Mudgal VD, Viswasrao G, Srivastava H (2016) Studies on the effect of ohmic heating on oil recovery and quality of sesame seeds. J Food Sci Technol 53(4):2009–2016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lanjewar PI, Minz PS (2015) Feasibility studies on ohmic heating of milk. M.Tech. Thesis, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  15. Manzoor MF, Zeng XA, Rahaman A, Siddeeg A, Aadil RM, Ahmed Z, Li J, Niu D (2019) Combined impact of pulsed electric field and ultrasound on bioactive compounds and FT-IR analysis of almond extract. J Food Sci Technol 56(5):2355–2364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Özkan N, Ho I, Farid M (2004) Combined ohmic and plate heating of hamburger patties: quality of cooked patties. J Food Eng 63:141–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Parmar P, Singh AK, Meena GS, Borad S, Raju PN (2018) Application of ohmic heating for concentration of milk. J Food Sci Technol 55(12):4956–4963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Priyanka, Minz PS, Subramani P (2018) Study of heating pattern during heat treatment of milk by ohmic heating. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 7(2):3033–3036Google Scholar
  19. Ran XL, Zhang M, Wang Y, Liu Y (2019) Vacuum radio frequency drying: a novel method to improve the main qualities of chicken powders. J Food Sci Technol 56(5):2355–2364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sarkis JR, Mercali GD, Tessaro IC, Marczak LDF (2013) Evaluation of key parameters during construction and operation of an ohmic heating apparatus. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 18:145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Schöler M, Föste H, Helbig M, Gottwald A, Friedrichs J, Werner C, Augustin W, Scholl S, Majschak JP (2012) Local analysis of cleaning mechanisms in CIP processes. Food Bioprod Process 90(4):858–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shen L, Zhu Y, Wang L, Liu C, Liu C, Zheng X (2019) Improvement of cooking quality of germinated brown rice attributed to the fissures caused by microwave drying. J Food Sci Technol 56(5):2737–2749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Stancl J, Zitny R (2010) Milk fouling at direct ohmic heating. J Food Eng 99:437–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Thamizhmanii S, Saparudin S, Hasan S (2007) Analyses of surface roughness by turning process using Taguchi method. J Ach Mater Manuf Eng 20:1–2Google Scholar
  25. Vanga SK, Singh A, Raghavan V (2017) Review of conventional and novel food processing methods on food allergens. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 57(10):2077–2094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Varghese KS, Pandey MC, Radhakrishna K, Bawa AS (2014) Technology, applications and modelling of ohmic heating: a review. J Food Sci Technol 51(10):2304–2317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wallhäuszer E, Hussein MA, Becker T (2012) Detection methods of fouling in heat exchangers in the food industry. Food Control 27:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Priyanka Rangi
    • 1
    Email author
  • P. S. Minz
    • 2
  • Gajanan P. Deshmukh
    • 1
  • P. Subramani
    • 3
  • Ripudaman Singh
    • 4
  1. 1.Dairy Engineering SectionICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, SRSBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Dairy Engineering SectionICAR-National Dairy Research InstituteKarnalIndia
  3. 3.Karnataka Milk FederationBengaluruIndia
  4. 4.GCMMFRohtakIndia

Personalised recommendations