Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 56, Issue 11, pp 4966–4971 | Cite as

Synthesis and characterization of mead: from the past to the future and development of a new fermentative route

  • Anna Luiza Diniz Felipe
  • Claudemir Oliveira Souza
  • Leandro Ferreira Santos
  • Alexandre CestariEmail author
Original Article


In ancient times, mead was produced by fermentation of honey in water and presented low quality, undesired by-products, off-flavors, and the production was time consuming. In this study, nine experiments were performed to improve the fermentation and mead characteristics. Distillation was not part of the production process and it was performed in this work to produce a new spirit. The samples were characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography, digital densimetry, titration, gravimetric method, pH, and refractometry. The results were compared to commercial beverages and legal limits. The meads presented high ethanol concentration, low by-products, fast fermentation, and high quality. The spirits showed high quality and the concentrations of acetic acid, ethyl acetate, methanol, higher alcohols, and ethyl carbamate were below the limits for safe consumption. In conclusion, it was possible to develop new conditions to produce high quality mead and mead spirit.


Fermentation Honey Mead Gas chromatography Mass spectrometry 



To the Federal Institute of Education, Science, and Technology of São Paulo – IFSP.


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Luiza Diniz Felipe
    • 1
  • Claudemir Oliveira Souza
    • 1
  • Leandro Ferreira Santos
    • 1
  • Alexandre Cestari
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Federal Institute of Education, Science, and Technology of São Paulo - IFSPMatãoBrazil

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