Shelf-life extension of grape (Pinot noir) by xanthan gum enriched with ascorbic and citric acid during cold temperature storage

  • Moses Kwaku Golly
  • Haile MaEmail author
  • Frederick Sarpong
  • Benedicta Princess Dotse
  • Patricia Oteng-Darko
  • Yating Dong
Original Article


The detrimental health implications of chemical preservatives in fruits have necessitated exploitation of safe and natural alternatives such as edible gums. This work studied shelf-life extension in grape (Pinot noir) under cold storage by xanthan gum (XAN) coatings enriched with ascorbic acid (XANAS) and citric acid (XANCI). Standard scientific methods were used to examine some sensory (color, texture—resilience and hardness), enzyme, anthocyanine and antioxidant activities. Also, the reaction rate mechanism was examined through modeling of selected shelf-life indicators; color change, weight loss, and antioxidants. The results revealed that, Xanthan gum and its acid modified coatings significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed polyphenol oxidase, ascorbic acid oxidase, polymethyl etherase acitivies and maintained the structural integrity of the grape during the 21 days storage period. Weight loss (%) in the grape samples was 13.66 < 13.98 < 14.16 < 15.64 in the order XANAS < XANCI < XAN < CONTROL whilst ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activity was 150.23 > 143.18 > 136.49 > 104.5 mg/100 g AEAC corresponding to XAN > XANAS > XANCI > CONTROL. Significantly (p < 0.05) higher phytochemical contents were observed in the gum coatings compared to the control. Through statistical parameters such as the coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE) and reduced Chi square (χ2), the second-order polynomial model predicted precisely the decomposition of color, weight loss and FRAP of grape. Color deterioration was attributed to changes in b* parameter as a result of phenolics and phytochemical decompositions resulting from enzymatic activities. Conclusively, acid modified xanthan gum coatings could preserve phytochemicals, color, antioxidant and textural properties of grape in cold temperature storage.


Antioxidant Chromatic Enzyme activity PCA Phytochemicals Kinetics 



Ascorbic acid oxidase


Polyphenol oxidase




Total color difference


Person’s coefficient of correlation


Coefficient of correlation


Root mean square error

\( \chi^{2} \)

Reduced Chi square


Pectin methylesterase


Ferric reducing antioxidant power


Total anthocyanin


Total Phenolic content


Total flavonoid content


Weight loss


Xanthan gum


Xanthan gum + ascorbic acid


Xanthan gum + citric acid



This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Plan of China (2018YFD0700101).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There exists no conflicting interest on the part of any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Food and Biological EngineeringJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Faculty of Applied Sciences and TechnologySunyani Technical UniversitySunyaniGhana
  3. 3.Community Health Nurses Training CollegeTanosoGhana
  4. 4.Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)-Crops Research InstituteKumasiGhana

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