Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 56, Issue 10, pp 4535–4542 | Cite as

Post-harvest calcium chloride treatments influence fruit firmness, cell wall components and cell wall hydrolyzing enzymes of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruits during storage

  • Veena JainEmail author
  • Shilpa Chawla
  • Poonam Choudhary
  • Sunita Jain
Original Article


Ber fruits of two varieties having variable shelf lives viz. Umran (8–9 days) and Kaithali (4–5 days) given post-harvest treatments of calcium chloride (1% and 2%) were analyzed for various cell wall components, cell wall hydrolyzing enzymes and fruit firmness at 2 days interval until complete decay. There was a continuous decrease in cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin contents during storage in both the varieties with more reduction in Kaithali, a variety having short shelf-life. The decline in cell wall components was accompanied by parallel increase in activities of cellulase, polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin methylesterase (PME). Post-harvest treatment of Ber fruits with calcium chloride resulted in significantly lowering of activities of cellulase (20–22%), PG (23–29%) and PME (25–28%) thereby retaining higher cell wall components viz. cellulose (9–11%), hemicellulose (7–8%) and pectin (12–13%) as compared to their respective control in both the varieties. The delay in cell wall hydrolysis, as mediated by calcium chloride corresponded to the higher retention of fruit firmness.


Ber Cellulase Cellulose Hemicellulose Pectin methylesterase Polygalacturonase 



  1. Ahmed AE, Labavitch JM (1978) A simplified method for accurate determination of cell wall uronide content. J Food Biochem 1:361–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali ZM, Chin LH, Lazan HA (2004) Comparative study on wall degrading enzymes, pectin modifications and softening during ripening of selected tropical fruits. Plant Sci 167:317–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angeletti P, Castagnasso H, Miceli E, Terminiello L, Concellon A, Chaves A, Vicente R (2010) Effect of pre-harvest calcium applications on post-harvest quality, softening and cell wall degradation of two blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) varieties. Postharvest Biol Biotechnol 58:98–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benavides A, Recasens I, Casero T, Soria Y, Puy J (2002) Multivariate analysis of quality and mineral parameters on Golden Smoothee apples treated before harvest with calcium and stored in controlled atmosphere. Food Sci Technol Int 1:139–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blumenkrantz N, Asboe-Hansen G (1973) New method for quantitative determination of uronic acids. Anal Biochem 54:484–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brummell DA, Harpster MH (2001) Cell wall metabolism in fruit softening and quality and its manipulation in transgenic plants. Plant Mol Biol 47:311–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carpita NC, Gibeaut DM (1993) Structural models of primary cell walls in flowering plants: consistency of molecular structure with the physical properties of the walls during growth. Plant J 3:1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Casero T, Benavides A, Puy J, Recasens I (2004) Relationships between leaf and fruit nutrients and fruit quality attributes in Golden Smothee apples using multivariate regression techniques. J Plant Nutr 27:313–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chardonnet CO, Charron CS, Sams CE, Conway WS (2002) Chemical changes in the cortical tissue and cell walls of calcium infiltrated ‘Golden Delicious’ apples during storage. Postharvest Biol Technol 28:97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheng G, Duan X, Jiang Y, Sun J, Yang S, Yang B, He SG, Liang H, Luo YB (2009) Modification of hemicellulose polysaccharides during ripening of post-harvest banana fruit. Food Chem 115:43–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Deng Y, Wu Y, Li Y (2005) Changes in firmness, cell wall composition and cell wall hydrolases of grapes stored in high oxygen atmospheres. Food Res Int 38:769–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Duan X, Cheng G, Yang E, Yi C, Ruenroengklin N, Lu W (2008) Modification of pectin polysaccharides during ripening of post-harvest banana fruit. Food Chem 111(1):144–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fertonani HCR (2006) Establishing an extraction model sour apple pomacepectin. Dissertation (MSc in Food Science and Technology), Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa, p 82Google Scholar
  14. Giongo L, Poncetta P, Loretti P, Costa F (2013) Texture profiling of blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) during fruit development, ripening and storage. Postharvest Biol Technol 76:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hagerman AE, Austin PJ (1986) Continuous spectrophotometric assay for plant pectin methylesterase. J Agric Food Chem 34:440–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ishaq S, Rathrore HRA, Masud T, Ali S (2009) Influence of post-harvest calcium chloride application, ethylene absorbent and modified atmosphere on quality characteristics and shelf-life of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) fruit during storage. Pak J Nutr 8:861–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jawandha SK, Mahajan BVC, Gill PS (2009) Effect of pre-harvest treatments on cellulase activity and quality of Ber fruits under cold storage conditions. Notulae Scientia Biol 1:88–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Langer SE, Marina M, Burgos JL, Martínez GA, Civello PM, Villarreal NM (2019) Calcium chloride treatment modifies cell wall metabolism and activates defense responses in strawberry fruit (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch). J Sci Food Agric 99(8):4003–4010. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Lara I, Garcia P, Vendrell M (2004) Modifications in cell wall composition after cold storage of calcium treated strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa Duch.) fruit. Postharvest Biol Technol 34:331–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Luna-Guzman I, Barrett DM (2000) Comparison of calcium chloride and calcium lactate effectiveness in maintaining shelf stability and quality of fresh-cut cantaloupes. Postharvest Biol Technol 19:61–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Manganaris GA, Vasilakakis M, Diamantidis G, Mignani I (2005) Effects of calcium additives on physicochemical aspects of cell wall pectin and sensory attributes of canned peach (Prunuspersica (L.) Batsch cv. Andross). J Sci Food Agric 85:1773–1778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Manrique GD, Lajolo FM (2004) Cell-wall polysaccharide modifications during post-harvest ripening of papaya fruit (Carica papaya). Postharvest Biol Technol 33(1):11–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Marzouk HA, Kassem HA (2011) Improving yield, quality, and shelf-life of Thompson seedless grapevine by preharvest foliar applications. Sci Hort 130:425–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nelson N (1944) A photometric adaptation of the Somogyi method for the determination of glucose. J Biol Chem 153:375–380Google Scholar
  25. Pradhan K, Bhatia SK (1986) Modification, standardization and evolving chemical and biological techniques for nutritive evaluation of forage. Technical Bulletin Department of Animal Nutrition, HAU, HisarGoogle Scholar
  26. Romanazzi G, Sanzani SM, Bi Y, Tian S, Martínez PG, Alkan N (2016) Induced resistance to control postharvest decay of fruit and vegetables. Postharvest Biol Technol 122:82–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rose JKC, Hadfield KA, Labavitch JM, Bennett AB (1998) Temporal sequence of cell wall disassembly in rapidly ripening melon fruit. J Plant Physiol 117:345–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Saftner RA, Bai J, Abbott JA, Lee YS (2003) Sanitary dips with calcium propionate, calcium chloride or a calcium amino acid chelate maintain quality and shelf stability of fresh-cut honeydew chunks. Postharvest Biol Technol 29:257–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sheoran OP, Tonk DS, Kaushik LS, Hasija RC, Pannu RS (1998) Statistical software package for agricultural research workers. In: Recent advances in information theory, statistics & computer applications by DS Hooda & RC Hasija Department of Mathematics Statistics, CCS HAU, Hisar, pp 139–143Google Scholar
  30. Siddiqui S, Streif J, Bangerth F (2004) Cell wall hydrolyzing enzymes and fruit softening in apple as affected by controlled atmosphere storage conditions. Indian J Plant Physiol 9:217–223Google Scholar
  31. Singh A, Singh M (1993) Cell wall degrading enzymes in Orobanche aegyptiaca and its host Brassica campestris. Physiol Plant 89:177–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Somogyi M (1952) Notes on sugar determination. J Biol Chem 195:19–23Google Scholar
  33. Tsantili E, Konstantinidis K, Athanasopoulos PE, Pontikis C (2002) Effects of post-harvest calcium treatments on respiration and quality attributes in lemon fruit during storage. J Hort Biotechnol 77:479–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Van Soest PJ, Wine RH (1967) Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. IV. Determination of plant cell wall constituents. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 50:50–55Google Scholar
  35. White PJ, Broadley MR (2003) Calcium in plants. Ann Bot 92:487–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhi HH, Liu QQ, Dong Y, Liu MP, Zong W (2017) Effect of calcium dissolved in slightly acidic electrolyzed water on antioxidant system, calcium distribution, and cell wall metabolism of peach in relation to fruit browning. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 92(6):621–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Veena Jain
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shilpa Chawla
    • 1
  • Poonam Choudhary
    • 1
  • Sunita Jain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryCCS Haryana Agricultural UniversityHisarIndia

Personalised recommendations