Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 56, Issue 10, pp 4616–4624 | Cite as

Effects of temperature and time on the physical characteristics of moist cakes baked in air fryer

  • Mazidah Mior Zakuan Azmi
  • Farah Saleena TaipEmail author
  • Siti Mazlina Mustapa Kamal
  • Nyuk Ling Chin
Original Article


Baking temperature and time are among the conditions for producing good quality cakes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of baking temperature and time on the volume expansion, moisture content, and texture of moist cakes baked in either an air fryer or a convection oven. The cakes were baked under different conditions: (1) baking temperature of 150 °C, 160 °C, and 170 °C for both air fryer and convection oven and (2) baking time of 25, 30, 35 min for air fryer and 35, 40, 45 min for convection oven. Baking temperature and time were found to have a significant (p < 0.05) effect on the relative height, moisture content, firmness and color of the product but no significant effect on the springiness of the product. Based on the numerical optimization method, the optimum condition in an air fryer was 150 °C for 25 min. These optimized conditions resulted in higher relative height (37.19%), higher moisture content (28.80%), lower crumb firmness and chewiness (5.05 N and 1.42 N respectively) as well as higher overall acceptance score (5.70) as compared to optimum condition in convection oven (150 °C at 55 min). Moreover, baking in the presence of rapid air flow in an air fryer may be declared that it is possible to produce high-quality moist cake with minimum baking temperature and shorter baking time.


Air fryer Convection oven Baking parameters 



This work was financially supported by the Grant from Universiti Putra Malaysia with Vote No. 9498700.


  1. Alifak YO, Sakıyan O (2016) Dielectric properties, optimum formulation and microwave baking conditions of chickpea cakes. J Food Sci Technol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boulet M, Marcos B, Dostie M, Moresoli C (2010) CFD modeling of heat transfer and flow field in a bakery pilot oven. J Food Eng 97:393–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cauvain SP, Young LS (2010) Chemical and physical deterioration of bakery foods. In: Leif S, Jens R, Andersen M (eds) Chemical deterioration and physical instability of food and beverages. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, pp 561–607Google Scholar
  4. Conforti FD (2014) Cake manufacture. In: Zhou W, Hui YH, De Leyn I, Pagani MA, Rosell CM, Selman JD, Therdthai N (eds) Cake manufacture, in bakery products science and technology, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 565–584Google Scholar
  5. Flander L, Salmenkallio-Marttila M, Suortti T, Autio K (2007) Optimization of ingredients and baking process for improved wholemeal oat bread quality. LWT Food Sci Technol 40:860–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gan HE, Karim R, Muhammad SKS, Bakar JA, Hashim DM, Rahman RA (2007) Optimization of the basic formulation of a traditional baked cassava cake using response surface methodology. LWT Food Sci Technol 40:611–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. HadiNezhad M, Butler F (2010) Effect of flour type and baking temperature on cake dynamic height profile measurements during baking. Food Bioprocess Technol 3:594–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Im JS, Huff HE, Hsieh FH (2003) Effects of processing conditions on the physical and chemical properties of buckwheat grit cakes. J Agric Food Chem 51:659–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Khatir Z, Paton J, Thompson H, Kapur N, Toropov V, Lawes M, Kirk D (2012) Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation of air flow and temperature distribution in a small scale bread-baking oven. Appl Energy 89:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mohamad RA, Taip FS, Kamal SMM, Bejo SK (2015) Color and volume development of cake baking and its influence on cake qualities. J Appl Sci Agric 10:63–68Google Scholar
  11. Omidiran AT, Sobukola OP, Sanni A, Adebowale ARA, Obadina OA, Sanni LO, Wolfgang T (2016) Optimization of some processing parameters and quality attributes of fried snacks from blends of wheat flour and brewers’ spent cassava flour. Food Sci Nutr 4:80–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Paton J, Khatir Z, Thompson H, Kapur N, Toropov V (2013) Thermal energy management in the bread baking industry using a system modelling approach. Appl Therm Eng 53:340–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Peluola-Adeyemi OA, Obi TE, Ugbogu DI (2016) Effect of temperature and time on the physical properties of bread produced from wheat–cocoyam flour using response. J Food Technol Res 3:63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Purlis E (2010) Browning development in bakery products—a review. J Food Eng 99:239–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Purlis E (2012) Baking process design based on modelling and simulation: towards optimization of bread baking. Food Control 27:45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Şakıyan Ö (2014) Optimization of formulation of soy-cakes baked in infrared-microwave combination oven by response surface methodology. J Food Sci Technol 52:2910–2917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sani NA, Taip FS, Kamal SMM, Aziz NA (2014) Effects of temperature and airflow on volume development during baking and its influence on quality of cake. J Eng Sci Technol 9:303–313Google Scholar
  18. Sanz T, Salvador A, Baixauli R, Fiszman SM (2009) Evaluation of four types of resistant starch in muffins. II. Effects in texture, colour and consumer response. Eur Food Res Technol 229:197–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sevimli KM, Sumnu G, Sahin S (2005) Optimization of halogen lamp—microwave combination baking of cakes: a response surface methodology study. Eur Food Res Technol 221:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shahapuzi NSM, Taip FS, Aziz NA (2012) Experimental studies on the effect of airflow on oven temperature and product qualities in cake baking process. In: International conference on agricultural and food engineering for life (Cafei2012), pp 26–28Google Scholar
  21. Shahapuzi NS, Taip FS, Ab Aziz N, Ahmedov A (2015) The effects of airflow on oven temperatures and cakes qualities. Pertanika J Sci Technol 23:339–350Google Scholar
  22. Shittu TA, Raji AO, Sanni LO (2007) Bread from composite cassava-wheat flour: I. Effect of baking time and temperature on some physical properties of bread loaf. Food Res Int 40:280–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Therdthai N, Zhou W, Adamczak T (2002) Optimisation of the temperature profile in bread baking. J Food Eng 55:41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Therdthai N, Zhou W, Adamczak T (2004) Three-dimensional CFD modelling and simulation of the temperature profiles and airflow patterns during a continuous industrial baking process. J Food Eng 65:599–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Varnalis AI, Brennan JG, MacDougall DB, Gilmour SG (2004) Optimisation of high temperature puffing of potato cubes using response surface methodology. J Food Eng 61:153–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wählby U, Skjöldebrand C, Junker E (2000) Impact of impingement on cooking time and food quality. J Food Eng 43:179–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yolacaner ET, Sumnu G, Sahin S (2017) Microwave-assisted baking. In: The microwave processing of foods, 2nd edn. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, pp 117–141Google Scholar
  28. Zareifard MR, Boissonneault V, Marcotte M (2009) Bakery product characteristics as influenced by convection heat flux. Food Res Int 42:856–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mazidah Mior Zakuan Azmi
    • 1
  • Farah Saleena Taip
    • 1
    Email author
  • Siti Mazlina Mustapa Kamal
    • 1
  • Nyuk Ling Chin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia

Personalised recommendations