Valorizing cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and capsicum (Capsicum annuum L.) wastes: in vitro health-promoting activities

  • Jia Lun Liang
  • Chean Chean Yeow
  • Kah Cheng Teo
  • Charles Gnanaraj
  • Ying Ping ChangEmail author
Original Article


The capsicum seed core and cabbage outer leaves are common wastes generated in the vegetable processing industry. We explored the in vitro health-promoting activity of these waste products for valorization. Freeze-dried and pulverized cabbage wastes had a high bile acid binding capacity and the capsicum wastes inhibited glucose dialysis more effectively. Methanolic extracts prepared with conventional solvent extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction were analyzed to determine their 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, in vitro α-amylase inhibitory, in vitro lipase inhibitory, and prebiotic activity. Crude extracts of cabbage and capsicum wastes were screened using GC–MS analysis. The cabbage waste extracts showed high antioxidant activities but did not inhibit α-amylase. The capsicum waste extracts inhibited both lipase and α-amylase activities and supported the growth of the probiotic bacterium, Lactobacilli brevis. Volatile compounds of the vegetables consisted mainly of phenols and fatty acid esters. In all assays except the α-amylase inhibition assay, the extracts prepared with ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction showed higher activity than those prepared using the conventional method. The capsicum seed core and cabbage outer leaves are potential sources of phytochemicals and antioxidant fibers. Capsicum waste extract supported probiotic bacterial growth without a lag phase. These waste products may be processed into high-value functional ingredients.


Cabbage Capsicum In vitro health-promoting activities Valorizing Wastes 



Bile acid binding capacity


Dietary fiber




The effective concentration of the sample extracts to scavenge half of the free radicals in the mixture (EC50)


Glucose dialysis retardation index


de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe


Solvent extraction/extracted


Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction/extracted



This study was supported by Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia through the internal grant IPSR/RMC/UTARRPS/2017/75. We thank Veg Station (M) Sdn. Bhd. for supplying the cabbage outer leaves and capsicum seed core.

Supplementary material

13197_2019_3912_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.3 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1284 kb)


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of ScienceUniversiti Tunku Abdul RahmanKamparMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Science, Faculty of ScienceUniversiti Tunku Abdul RahmanKamparMalaysia

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