Microwave-assisted extraction of hempseed oil: studying and comparing of fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, physiochemical and thermal properties with Soxhlet extraction

  • Amir Rezvankhah
  • Zahra Emam-DjomehEmail author
  • Mohammad Safari
  • Gholamreza Askari
  • Maryam Salami
Original Article


This work aimed to investigate the effects of the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) on the hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.) oil yield, oxidation stability, and antioxidant activity. Power (300, 450, and 600 W) and time (5, 10, and 15 min) were independent variables while oil extraction yield, peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (AV), TOTOX value (TV), and DPPH scavenging activity were considered as dependent ones. Optimization was conducted by response surface methodology where the optimum point was 450 W and 7.19 min. In this point, the extraction yield obtained 33.91% w/w and the oil showed acceptable oxidation quality (PV of 2.5 meq/kg, AV of 0.67, and TV of 5.67) and antioxidant activity with the IC50 value of 30.82 mg/mL. The Soxhlet extraction (SE) method was carried out to be compared with MAE. It showed relatively higher oil extraction yield (37.93% w/w) but lower oil oxidation stability with PV of 6.4 meq/kg, AV of 3.69, TV of 16.49, and higher amount of IC50 32.47 mg/mL which showed lower antioxidant activity. Any significant difference between fatty acid compositions was not observed with the dominant amounts of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid. Also, the tocopherol contents and thermal properties were studied by HPLC and DSC, respectively. MAE showed higher total tocopherol content (929.67 mg/kg) than SE (832.61 mg/kg) and γ-tocopherol was dominant. Moreover, DSC analysis showed that both profiles (crystallization and melting transitions) are likely influenced mostly by the triglyceride compositions and crystals structure.


Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) Hempseed oil Oxidation stability Tocopherol content 



  1. Aladić K, Jarni K, Barbir T, Vidović S, Vladić J, Bilić M, Jokić S (2015) Supercritical CO2 extraction of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil. Ind Crops Prod 76:472–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Azadmard-Damirchi S, Habibi-Nodeh F, Hesari J, Nemati M, Achachlouei BF (2010) Effect of pretreatment with microwaves on oxidative stability and nutraceuticals content of oil from rapeseed. Food Chem 121(4):1211–1215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Callaway JC (2004) Hempseed as a nutritional resource: an overview. Euphytica 140(1):65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen F, Xinqi D, Yuangang Z, Yang L, Wang F (2016) Microwave-assisted method for distillation and dual extraction in obtaining essential oil, proanthocyanidins, and polysaccharides by one-pot process from Cinnamomi Cortex. Sep Purif Technol 164:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Choe E, Min DB (2006) Mechanisms and factors for edible oil oxidation. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 5(4):169–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chouaibi M, Rezig L, Hamdi S, Ferrari G (2019) Chemical characteristics and compositions of red pepper seed oils extracted by different methods. Ind Crops Prod 128:363–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Da Porto C, Decorti D, Tubaro F (2012a) Fatty acid composition and oxidation stability of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide. Ind Crops Prod 36(1):401–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Da Porto C, Voinovich D, Decorti D, Natolino A (2012b) Response surface optimization of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) oil yield and oxidation stability by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. J Supercrit Fluids 68:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Da Porto C, Decorti D, Natolino A (2016) Microwave pretreatment of Moringa oleifera seed: effect on oil obtained by pilot-scale supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and Soxhlet apparatus. J Supercrit Fluids 107:38–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Delfan-Hosseini S, Nayebzadeh K, Mirmoghtadaie L, Kavosi M, Hosseini SM (2017) Effect of extraction process on composition, oxidative stability and rheological properties of purslane seed oil. Food Chem 222:61–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dunford NT (2015) Hemp and flaxseed oil: properties and applications for use in food. Specialty Oils and Fats in Food and Nutrition: Properties, Processing, and Applications 39Google Scholar
  12. Duvernay WH, Assad JM, Sabliov CM, Lima M, Xu Z (2005) Microwave extraction of antioxidant components from rice bran. Pharm Eng 25(4):126Google Scholar
  13. Firestone D (2009) Official methods and recommended practices of the AOCS: AOCSGoogle Scholar
  14. Gai Q-Y, Jiao J, Pan-Song M, Wang W, Luo M, Li C-Y, Yuan-Gang Z, Wei F-Y, Yu-Jie F (2013) Microwave-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of oil from Isatis indigotica seeds and its evaluation of physicochemical properties, fatty acid compositions, and antioxidant activities. Ind Crops Prod 45:303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Horwutz W (2000) Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. In: AOAC International, 17th edn. vol 1. Gaithersburg, MDGoogle Scholar
  16. Hu B, Li C, Zhang Z, Zhao Q, Zhu Y, Zhao S, Chen Y (2017) Microwave-assisted extraction of silkworm pupal oil and evaluation of its fatty acid composition, physicochemical properties, and antioxidant activities. Food Chem 231:348–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jiao J, Li Z-G, Gai Q-Y, Li X-J, Wei F-Y, Yu-Jie F, Ma W (2014) Microwave-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of oil from pumpkin seeds and evaluation of its physicochemical properties, fatty acid compositions, and antioxidant activities. Food Chem 147:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kostić MD, Joković NM, Stamenković OS, Rajković KM, Milić PS, Veljković VB (2013) Optimization of hempseed oil extraction by n-hexane. Ind Crops Prod 48:133–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kostić MD, Joković NM, Stamenković OS, Rajković KM, Milić PS, Veljković VB (2014) The kinetics and thermodynamics of hempseed oil extraction by n-hexane. Ind Crops Prod 52:679–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Latif S, Anwar F (2009) Physicochemical studies of hemp (Cannabis sativa) seed oil using enzyme-assisted cold-pressing. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 111(10):1042–1048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li J, Yuan-Gang Z, Luo M, Cheng-Bo G, Zhao C-J, Efferth T, Yu-Jie F (2013) Aqueous enzymatic process assisted by microwave extraction of oil from yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge.) seed kernels and its quality evaluation. Food Chem 138(4):2152–2158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Long J-j, Yu-jie F, Yuan-gang Z, Li J, Wang W, Cheng-bo G, Luo M (2011) Ultrasound-assisted extraction of flaxseed oil using immobilized enzymes. Biores Technol 102(21):9991–9996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Matthäus B, Brühl L (2008) Virgin hemp seed oil: an interesting niche product. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 110(7):655–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Moghadas HC, Rezaei K (2017) Laboratory-scale optimization of roasting conditions followed by aqueous extraction of oil from wild almond. J Am Oil Chem Soc 94:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Oomah BD, Busson M, Godfrey DV, Drover JC (2002) Characteristics of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil. Food Chem 76(1):33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Paquot C (2013) Standard methods for the analysis of oils, fats, and derivatives. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Remans PHJ, Sont JK, Wagenaar LW, Wouters-Wesseling W, Zuijderduin WM, Jongma A, Breedveld FC, Van Laar JM (2004) Nutrient supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical and biochemical effects. Eur J Clin Nutr 58(6):839–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rezvankhah A, Emam-Djomeh Z, Safari M, Askari G, Salami M (2018) Investigation on the extraction yield, quality, and thermal properties of hempseed oil during ultrasound-assisted extraction: a comparative study. J Food Process Preserv. Google Scholar
  29. Samaram S, Mirhosseini H, Tan CP, Ghazali HM (2014) Ultrasound-assisted extraction and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: crystallization and thermal behavior, saturation degree, color, and oxidative stability. Ind Crops Prod 52:702–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Samaram S, Mirhosseini H, Tan CP, Ghazali HM, Bordbar S, Serjouie A (2015) Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from papaya seed by response surface methodology: oil recovery, radical scavenging antioxidant activity, and oxidation stability. Food Chem 172:7–17. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Senanayake SN, Shahidi F (2000) Lipid components of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seeds and their changes during germination. J Am Oil Chem Soc 77(1):55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Taghvaei M, Jafari SM, Assadpoor E, Nowrouzieh S, Alishah O (2014) Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of cottonseed oil and evaluation of its oxidative stability and physicochemical properties. Food Chem 160:90–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Teh S-S, Birch J (2013) Physicochemical and quality characteristics of cold-pressed hemp, flax, and canola seed oils. J Food Compos Anal 30(1):26–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tian Y, Zhenbo X, Zheng B, Martin Lo Y (2013) Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil. Ultrason Sonochem 20(1):202–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wall R, Paul Ross R, Fitzgerald GF, Stanton C (2010) Fatty acids from fish: the anti-inflammatory potential of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Nutr Rev 68(5):280–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wroniak M, Rękas A, Siger A, Janowicz M (2016) Microwave pretreatment effects on the changes in seeds microstructure, chemical composition and oxidative stability of rapeseed oil. LWT-Food Sci Technol 68:634–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Transfer Phenomena Laboratory (TPL), Department of Food Science, Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, College of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesUniversity of TehranKarajIran

Personalised recommendations