Advertisement

Nutritional value and antioxidant properties of hull and kernel in Pistacia atlantica and Pistacia khinjuk fruits

  • Behnam Mohammadi
  • Hassan Ebrahimzadeh MaboudEmail author
  • Seyed Mahdi SeyediEmail author
Original Article
  • 12 Downloads

Abstract

Different species of Pistacia are rich in various mineral and natural antioxidants’ compounds and have numerous pharmacological effects with a gamut running from being anticholinesterasic and antitumor to being antidiabetic, etc. Various parameters such as antioxidant compounds, fatty acid profiles and nutritious elements were probed in different populations of Pistacia atlantica and Pistacia khinjuk. The results unveiled the high contents of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds, flavonols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, tocopherols and ascorbic acid in hull relative to that of kernel. In different populations, the kernel has a higher nutritional value than the hull; for example, the content of protein, sugar, unsaturated fatty acids and elements such as phosphorus, calcium, iron and copper in kernel are greater vis-à-vis that of hull. Palmitic, oleic (ω-9) and linoleic acids (ω-6) are the major components in the profile of hull and kernel fatty acids. Generally, the findings demonstrated that the kernel and hull of P. atlantica—especially in the JE population—have the highest nutritional value and antioxidant properties, respectively.

Keywords

Pistacia atlantica Pistacia khinjuk Hull Kernel Antioxidant Nutritional value 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The financial support of this research was provided by College of Science, University of Tehran.

Author’s Contribution

Abdol Mohammadi has contributed in the major bench experiments. Dr. Hassan Ebrahimzadeh and Dr. Seyed Mahdi Seyedi equally designed the experiments.

References

  1. Akkol EK, Göger F, Koşar M, Başer KHC (2008) Phenolic composition and biological activities of Salvia halophila and Salvia virgata from Turkey. Food Chem 108(3):942–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aouinti F, Zidane H, Tahri M et al (2014) Chemical composition, mineral contents and antioxidant activity of fruits of Pistacia lentiscus L. from Eastern Morocco Mater. JMES 5:199Google Scholar
  3. Baiano A, del Nobile MA (2015) Antioxidant compounds from vegetable matrices: biosynthesis, occurrence, and extraction systems. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 56:2053–2068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ben Ahmed Z, Yousfi M, Viaene J et al (2016) Antioxidant activities of Pistacia atlantica extracts modeled as a function of chromatographic fingerprints in order to identify antioxidant markers. Microchem J 128:208–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bermudez B, Lopez S, Ortega A (2011) Oleic acid in olive oil: from a metabolic framework toward a clinical perspective. Curr Pharm Des 17:831–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72(1–2):248–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buchanan BB, Gruissem W, Jones RL (2015) Biochemistry and molecular biology of plants, chapter 23, 3rd edn. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  8. Bullo M, Juanola-Falgarona M, Hernandez-Alonso P, Salas-Salvado J (2015) Nutrition attributes and health effects of pistachio nuts. Br J Nutr 113(S2):79–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chang CC, Yang MH, Wen HM, Chern JC (2002) Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J Food Drug Anal 10(3):178–182Google Scholar
  10. Conde E, Cadahia E, Garcia-Vallejo MC (1995) HPLC analysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids and aldehydes in Eucalyptus spp. Chromatographia 41(11–12):657–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. D’Evoli L, Lucarini M, Gabrielli P, Aguzzi A, Lombardi-Boccia G (2015) Nutritional value of Italian pistachios from Bronte (Pistacia vera, L.), their nutrients, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Food Nutr Sci 6:1267–1276Google Scholar
  12. Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK et al (1956) Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem 28:350–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eaton SB, Konner M (1985) Paleolithic nutrition. A consideration of its nature and current implications. N Engl J Med 312:283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gebhardt SE, Lemar LE, Cutrufelli RL et al (2013) SDA national nutrient database for standard reference. Release No. 18. http://www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata/ June 2007
  15. Gillingham LG, Harris-Janz S, Jones PJH (2011) Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids are protective against metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Lipids 46:209–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hatamnia AA, Abbaspour N, Darvishzadeh R (2014) Antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of different parts of Bene (Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica) fruits. Food Chem 145:306–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hatamnia AS, Rostamzad A, Malekzadeh P et al (2015) Antioxidant activity of different parts of Pistacia khinjuk Stocks fruit and its correlation to phenolic composition. Nat Prod Res 7:1–6Google Scholar
  18. Hercberg S, Kesse-Guyot E, Druesne-Pecollo N (2010) Incidence of cancers, ischemic cardiovascular diseases and mortality during 5-year follow-up after stopping antioxidant vitamins and minerals supplements: a post intervention follow-up in the SU.VI.MAX Study. Int J Cancer 127:1875–1881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Institute of Medicine (US) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (1997) Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. NAP, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  20. Jackson ML (1962) Soil chemical analysis. Contable Co Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Kafkas S, Cetine MS, Perl-Treves R (2002) Molecular variation between and within Pistacia species in Turkey. Hortic Sci 37:168–171Google Scholar
  22. Kamal-Eldin A, Moreau RA (eds) (2010) Tree nut oils. In: Gourmet and health-promoting specialty oils, vol 3. Academic Press and AOCS Press, Champaign, pp 127–150Google Scholar
  23. Kayden HJ, Chow CK, Bjornson LK (1973) Spectrophotometric method for determination of tocopherol in red blood cells. J Lipid Res 14(5):533–540Google Scholar
  24. Liu S, Huang H (2014) Assessments of antioxidant effect of black tea extract and its rationales by erythrocyte hemolysis assay, plasma oxidation assay and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay. J Funct Foods 18:1095–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mukherjee SP, Choudhuri MA (1983) Implications of water stress induced changes in the levels of endogenous ascorbic acid and hydrogen peroxide in Vigna seedlings. Plant Physiol 58:166–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rodriguez-Ruiz J, Belarbi EH, Sánchez JLG, Alonso DL (1998) Rapid simultaneous lipid extraction and transesterification for fatty acid analyses. Biotechnol Tech 12(9):689–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rosa M, Desamparados M (2018) Composition and properties of virgin pistachio oils and their by-products from different cultivars. Food Chem 240:123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shahidi F, Alasalvar C (2008) Chemical composition of edible nut seeds and its implications in human health. In: Tree nuts, Chapter 2. CRC Press, pp 25–50Google Scholar
  29. Sheng HW (2000) Sodium, chloride and potassium. In: Stipanuk M (ed) Biochemical and physiological aspects of human nutrition. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, pp 686–710Google Scholar
  30. Shils ME, Olson JA, Shihe M, Ross AC (1999) Modern nutrition in health and disease. William and Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  31. Singh B, Singh N, Thakur S, Kaur A (2017) Ultrasound assisted extraction of polyphenols and their distribution in whole mung bean, hull and cotyledon. J Food Sci Technol 54:921–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sokmen A, Gurel E (2001) Bitki Biyoteknolojisi “Plant biotechnology”. In: Babaoglu M, Gurel E, Ozcan S (eds) Sekonder Metabolit Uretimi (Secondary metabolite production). Selcuk University Press, Konya, pp 211–261Google Scholar
  33. Taran M, Sharifi M, Azizi E, Khanahmadi M (2010) Antimicrobial activity of the leaves of Pistacia khinjuk. J Med Plant 9:81–85Google Scholar
  34. Tavakoli J, Hamedani F, Haddad Khodaparast MH (2016) Investigating chemical properties and oxidative stability of kernel oil from Pistacia khinjuk growing wild in Iran. J Am Oil Chem Soc 93:681–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wagner GJ (1979) Content and vacuole/extravacuole distribution of neutral sugars, free amino acids, and anthocyanin in protoplasts. Plant Physiol 64(1):88–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zarshenas MM, Arabzadeh A, Tafti MA et al (2013) Application of herbal exudates in traditional Persian medicine. GMJ 1:78–83Google Scholar
  37. Zohary M (1952) A monographical study of the genus Pistacia. Am J Bot (Jerus Ser) 5(4):187–228Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant Biology, and Center of Excellence in Phylogeny of Living Organisms in Iran, School of Biology, College of ScienceUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Plant BiotechnologyNational Institute of Genetic Engineering and BiotechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations