Voltammetric determination of iodide in iodized table salt using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as ion-pairing

  • M. A. Jamilan
  • J. AbdullahEmail author
  • S. A. Alang Ahmad
  • M. F. Md Noh
Original Article


In this work, voltammetric study based on cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as an ion-pairing agent for the determination of iodine level in iodized table salt has been explored. CTAB was used as an intermediate compound between iodide (I) and the electrode due to its ability to dissociate to produce cetyltrimethylammonium ions ([CTA]+). The [CTA]+ with a long hydrophobic alkyl chain can be directly adsorbed onto the surface of the working electrode, and this in turns coated the electrode with cationic charge and enhance the electrode ability to bind to iodide (I) and other molecular iodine ions. A mixture of iodide and CTAB ([CTA]+I) was prepared and potential of 1.0 V for 60.0 s was applied to pre-concentrate the solution on the working electrode causing the [CTA]+I to oxidize to iodine (I2). The produced I2 immediately react with chloride ion (Cl) from the electrolyte of hydrochloric acid (HCl) to produce I2Cl and form ion-pair with CTA+ as [CTA]+I2Cl. The linear calibration curve of the developed method towards iodide was in the concentration range of 0.5–4.0 mg/L with sensitivity of − 1.383 µA mg/L−1 cm−2 (R2 = 0.9950), limit of detection (LOD) of 0.3 mg/L and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1.0 mg/L, respectively. The proposed method indicates good agreement with the standard method for iodine determination with recovery range from 95.0 to 104.3%. The developed method provided potential application as a portable on-site iodine detector.


Commercial iodized table salt Voltammetric Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) Iodine Screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) 



We would like to thank the Director General of Health Malaysia for his permission to publish this article. We also would like to express our gratitude to the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). This project was funded by the Ministry of Health Malaysia (NMRR-14-502-21091) and partly supported by the Universiti Putra Malaysia (GP-IPS/2018/9652900).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Brugnera MF, Trindade MAG, Zanoni MVB (2010) Detection of bisphenol A on a screen-printed carbon electrode in CTAB micellar medium. Anal Lett 43:2823–2836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Church JA, Dreskin SA (1968) Kinetics of color development in the Landolt (“iodine clock”) reaction. J Phys Chem 72:1387–1390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fuge R, Johnson CC (2015) Iodine and human health, the role of environmental geochemistry and diet, a review. Appl Geochem 63:282–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gaspar V, Showalter K (1987) The oscillatory Landolt reaction. Empirical rate law model and detailed mechanism. J Am Chem Soc 109:4869–4876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ghosh S, Manna L (2018) The many “facets” of halide ions in the chemistry of colloidal inorganic nanocrystals. Chem Rev 118:7804–7864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. He Q, Fei J, Hu S (2003) Voltammetric method based on an ion-pairing reaction for the determination of trace amount of iodide at carbon-paste electrodes. Anal Sci 19:681–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hetzel BS (1983) Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) and their eradication. Lancet 322:1126–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Huang X, Li Y, Chen Y, Wang L (2008) Electrochemical determination of nitrite and iodate by use of gold nanoparticles/poly(3-methylthiophene) composites coated glassy carbon electrode. Sens Actuators B Chem 134:780–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kocher DC (1981) A dynamic model of the global iodine cycle and estimation of dose to the world population from releases of iodine-129 to the environment. Environ Int 5:15–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lim KK, Chan YY, Zainuddin AA et al (2014) Iodine deficiency disorder and Goitre among school children in Sarawak-a nationwide study. Int J Public Heal Res 4:419–424Google Scholar
  11. Lim KK, Chan YY, Teh CH et al (2017) Iodine status among pregnant women in rural Sabah, Malaysia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 26:861–866Google Scholar
  12. Mannar MGV, Dunn JT (1995) Salt iodization for the elimination of iodine deficiency. International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  13. National Coordinating Committee on Food and Nutrition (2017) Iodine. In: Recommended nutrient intakes for Malaysia. Ministry of Health Malaysia, Putrajaya, pp 342–355Google Scholar
  14. Rasmussen LB, Andersen S, Ovesen L, Laurberg P (2009) Iodine intake and food choice. In: Comprehensive handbook of iodine. Academic Press, Burlington, pp 332–337Google Scholar
  15. Rebary B, Paul P, Ghosh PK (2010) Determination of iodide and iodate in edible salt by ion chromatography with integrated amperometric detection. Food Chem 123:529–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sangeetha Y, Meenakshi S, Sundaram CS (2016) Synergistic effect of water soluble chitin and iodide ion on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acid medium. Adv Mater Lett 7:164–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Semba RD, Delange* F (2008) Iodine deficiency disorders. In: Nutrition and health in developing countries. Humana Press, Totowa, pp 507–529Google Scholar
  18. Švancara I, Konvalina J, Schachl K et al (1998) Stripping voltammetric determination of iodide with synergistic accumulation at a carbon paste electrode. Electroanalysis 10:435–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Švancara I, Ogorevc B, Nović M, Vytřas K (2002) Simple and rapid determination of iodide in table salt by stripping potentiometry at a carbon-paste electrode. Anal Bioanal Chem 372:795–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Teradale AB, Lamani SD, Ganesh PS et al (2017) CTAB immobilized carbon paste electrode for the determination of mesalazine: a cyclic voltammetric method. Sens Bio-Sens Res 15:53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. World Health Organization (2007) Assessment of the iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination: a guide for programme managers, 3rd edn. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  22. Yu L, Shi M, Yue X, Qu L (2015) A novel and sensitive hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide functionalized graphene supported platinum nanoparticles composite modified glassy carbon electrode for determination of sunset yellow in soft drinks. Sens Actuators B Chem 209:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zhu Y, Guan J, Cao L, Hao J (2010) Determination of trace iodide in iodised table salt on silver sulfate-modified carbon paste electrode by differential pulse voltammetry with electrochemical solid phase nano-extraction. Talanta 80:1234–1238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zimmermann MB (2009) Iodine deficiency. Endocr Rev 30:376–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zimmermann MB, Jooste PL, Pandav CS (2008) Iodine-deficiency disorders. Lancet 372:1251–1262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zou X, Luo L, Ding Y, Wu Q (2007) Chitosan incorporating cetyltrimethylammonium bromide modified glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and dopamine. Electroanalysis 19:1840–1844CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)SerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Institute of Advanced TechnologyUniversiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)SerdangMalaysia
  3. 3.Nutrition Unit, Cardiovascular, Diabetes and Nutrition Research CentreInstitute for Medical Research, Ministry of HealthKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations