Advertisement

Key odorants of a Moroccan fermented milk product “Lben” using aroma extract dilution analysis

  • Salwa Tsouli Sarhir
  • Asghar Amanpour
  • Amina Bouseta
  • Serkan SelliEmail author
Original Article
  • 5 Downloads

Abstract

Lben is one of the main dairy products in Morocco, which broadly plays a significant role in food industry due to its nutritional, taste, aroma and health features. Aroma is a main quality factor for this kind of fermented dairy products. In this study, aroma compounds were extracted by four different methods. According to the sensory analysis, solvent-assisted flavor evaporation exhibited the most representative and reproducible method of Lben matrices. In general, a total of 24 volatile compounds were found for the first time in Lben, including aldehyde, alcohols, acids, esters, and ketones. The Lben characteristic aroma was characterized by 15 odour-active compounds using the application of the aroma extract dilution analysis. On the basis of flavor dilution (FD) results, butanoic acid (FD = 1024, ripened cheese), acetoin (FD = 512, buttery-creamy), 2-heptanol (FD = 512, fatty) and hexanoic acid (FD = 512, cheesy-goat) were the most powerful key odorants in Lben.

Keywords

Moroccan Lben Aroma Key odorants SAFE GC–MS-olfactometry AEDA 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Grateful acknowledgment is made for the laboratory of Agri-food and Food Safety, Dhar El Mahraz Faculty of Sciences, of Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, for the partial financial support of Salwa Tsouli Sarhir. We are also grateful to the members of the sensorial analysis panel, and to Research Assistant Gamze Guclu for her technical assistance. We thank also Dr. Aziz Amine for his valuable and careful revision of the manuscript.

References

  1. Amanpour A, Sonmezdag AS, Kelebek H, Selli S (2015) GC–MS–olfactometric characterization of the most aroma-active components in a representative aromatic extract from Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Food Chem 182:251–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amanpour A, Kelebek H, Selli S (2017) Aroma constituents of shade-dried aerial parts of Iranian dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and savory (Satureja sahendica Bornm.) by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. J Food Meas Charact 11:1430–1439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aubert C, Baumann S, Arguel H (2005) Optimization of the analysis of flavor volatile compounds by liquid − liquid microextraction (LLME). Application to the aroma analysis of melons, peaches, grapes, strawberries, and tomatoes. J Agric Food Chem 53:8881–8895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bendall JG (2001) Aroma compounds of fresh milk from New Zealand cows fed different diets. J Agric Food Chem 49:4825–4832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benkerroum N, Tamime AY (2004) Technology transfer of some Moroccan traditional dairy products (lben, jben and smen) to small industrial scale. Food Microbiol 21:399–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beuttner A, Schieberle P (1999) Changes in the concentrations of key orange odorants induced by mastication of orange segments and orange juice. In: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. Am Chem Soc 1155 16TH ST, NW, Washington, DC 20036 USA, pp 47–48Google Scholar
  7. Boonbumrung S, Tamura H, Mookdasanit J et al (2001) Characteristic aroma components of the volatile oil of yellow keaw mango fruits determined by limited odor unit method. Food Sci Technol Res 7:200–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boubekri C, Elaraki AT, Berrada M, Benkerroum N (1984) Caractérisation physico-chimique du Iben marocain. Lait 64:436–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buttery RG, Ling LC (1998) Additional studies on flavor components of corn tortilla chips. J Agric Food Chem 46:2764–2769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buttery RG, Turnbaugh JG, Ling LC et al (1988) Contribution of volatiles to rice aroma. J Agric Food Chem 36:1006–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buttery RG, Teranishi R, Ling LC, Turnbaugh JG (1990) Quantitative and sensory studies on tomato paste volatiles. J Agric Food Chem 38:336–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cornu A, Rabiau N, Kondjoyan N et al (2009) Odour-active compound profiles in Cantal-type cheese: effect of cow diet, milk pasteurization and cheese ripening. Int Dairy J 19:588–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coulibaly K, Jeon IJ (1992) Solid-phase extraction of less volatile flavor compounds from ultrahigh-temperature processed milk. J Agric Food Chem 40:612–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Curioni PMG, Bosset JO (2002) Key odorants in various cheese types as determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Int Dairy J 12:959–984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Delgado FJ, González-Crespo J, Cava R et al (2010) Characterisation by SPME-GC-MS of the volatile profile of a Spanish soft cheese P.D.O. Torta del Casar during ripening. Food Chem 118:182–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Engel W, Bahr W, Schieberle P (1999) Solvent assisted flavour evaporation—a new and versatile technique for the careful and direct isolation of aroma compounds from complex food matrices. Eur Food Res Technol 209:237–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Havemose MS, Justesen P, Bredie WLP, Nielsen JH (2007) Measurement of volatile oxidation products from milk using solvent-assisted flavour evaporation and solid phase microextraction. Int Dairy J 17:746–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Karl-Otto S, Hans-Dieter B, von Christof R et al (1988) Untersuchungen zur Struktur-Aktivitäts-Beziehung bei Geruchsstoffen 1. Mitteilung: Wahrnehmungsschwellenwerte und Geruchsqualitäten von gesättigten aliphatischen und alicyclischen Verbindungen mit Sauerstoff-FunktionInvestigations on the structure-activit. Zeitschrift für Leb und Forsch 187:215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Larsen M, Poll L (1992) Odour thresholds of some important aroma compounds in strawberriesGeruchsschwellen einiger wichtiger Aromastoffe der Erdbeeren. Zeitschrift für Leb und Forsch 195:120–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li N, Zheng FP, Chen HT et al (2011) Identification of volatile components in Chinese Sinkiang fermented camel milk using SAFE, SDE, and HS-SPME-GC/MS. Food Chem 129:1242–1252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lozano PR, Miracle ER, Krause AJ et al (2007) Effect of cold storage and packaging material on the major aroma components of sweet cream butter. J Agric Food Chem 55:7840–7846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Majcher MA, Myszka K, Gracka A et al (2017) Key odorants of Lazur, a Polish mold-ripened cheese. J Agric Food Chem 66:2443–2448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mangia NP, Garau G, Murgia MA et al (2014) Influence of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria and enzymatic yeast extracts on the microbiological, biochemical and sensorial properties of Lben generic products. J Dairy Res 81:193–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mariaca R, Bosset JO (1997) Instrumental analysis of volatile (flavour) compounds in milk and dairy products. Lait 77:13–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McSweeney PLH, Sousa MJ (2000) Biochemical pathways for the production of flavour compounds in cheeses during ripening: A review. Lait 80:293–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Oliveira CAF, Fernandes AM, Neto OCC, Fonseca LFL (2002) Composition and sensory evaluation of whole yogurt produced from milk with different somatic cell counts. Aust J Dairy Technol 57:192Google Scholar
  27. Ott A, Fay LB, Chaintreau A (1997) Determination and origin of the aroma impact compounds of yogurt flavor. J Agric Food Chem 45:850–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rodriguez-Bencomo JJ, Kelebek H, Sonmezdag AS, Rodriguez-Alcala LM, Fontecha J, Selli S (2015) Characterization of the aroma-active, phenolic, and lipid profiles of the pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut as affected by the single and double roasting process. J Agric Food Chem 63:7830–7839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Samet-Bali O, Bellila A, Ayadi MM et al (2010) A comparison of the physicochemical, microbiological and aromatic composition of Traditional and Industrial Leben in Tunisia. Int J Dairy Technol 63:98–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Samet-Bali O, Ennouri M, Dhouib A, Attia H (2012) Characterisation of typical Tunisian fermented milk: Leben. Afr J Microbiol Res 6:2169–2175Google Scholar
  31. Schieberle P, Gassenmeier KF, Guth HU et al (1993) Character Impact Odour Compounds of Different Kinds of Butter. LWT Food Sci Technol 26:347–356.  https://doi.org/10.1006/fstl.1993.1070 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Selli S, Kelebek H (2011) Aromatic profile and odour-activity value of blood orange juices obtained from Moro and Sanguinello (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck). Ind Crops Prod 33:727–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Siefarth C, Buettner A (2014) The aroma of goat milk: Seasonal effects and changes through heat treatment. J Agric Food Chem 62:11805–11817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Šípalová M, Kráčmar S (2011) Aroma active compounds in milk from goat fed basil (Ocimum basilicum). Acta Univ Agric Silvic Mendelianae Brun 59:171–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Smit BA, Engels WJM, Wouters JTM, Smit G (2004) Diversity of l-leucine catabolism in various microorganisms involved in dairy fermentations, and identification of the rate-controlling step in the formation of the potent flavour component 3-methylbutanal. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 64:396–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tamime AY (2003) Fermented milks: a historical food with modern applications–a review. Eur J Clin Nutr 56:S2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tantaoui-Elaraki A, El Marrakchi A, El Marrakchit A (1987) Study of Moroccan dairy products: Iben and smen. MIRCEN J Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 3:211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Urbach G (1997) The flavour of milk and dairy products: II. Cheese: contribution of volatile compounds. Int J Dairy Technol 50:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Van Kranenburg R, Kleerebezem M, Van Hylckama Vlieg J et al (2002) Flavour formation from amino acids by lactic acid bacteria: Predictions from genome sequence analysis. Int Dairy J 12:111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zabaleta L, Gourrat K, Barron LJR et al (2016) Identification of odour-active compounds in ewes’ raw milk commercial cheeses with sensory defects. Int Dairy J 58:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Agri-food and Food Safety, Dhar El Mahraz Faculty of SciencesSidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah UniversityFezMorocco
  2. 2.Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of AgricultureCukurova UniversityAdanaTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Natural and Applied SciencesCukurova UniversityAdanaTurkey

Personalised recommendations