Quality attributes of Kisra prepared from sorghum flour fermented with baobab fruit pulp flour as starter

  • Abubaker B. Makawi
  • Abdelmoniem I. Mustafa
  • Oladipupo Q. Adiamo
  • Isam A. Mohamed AhmedEmail author
Original Article


Kisra, a fermented sorghum flat bread, was prepared from two sorghum genotypes termed Wad-Ahmed (high tannin) and Tabat (low tannin) in Sudan that has been fermented with different starter levels [20, 50, 75 and 100 g of fermented baobab fruit pulp flour (FBFPF)/100 g flour]. Chemical composition, antinutritional factors, mineral extractability, ascorbic acid, in vitro protein (IVPD) and starch digestibilities (IVSD) of Kisra were determined. Preparation of Kisra with the sorghum genotypes fermented with higher levels of FBFPF enhanced the protein, fiber, fat, ash, and minerals contents and their extractability (P ≤ 0.05). Maximum amino acids contents were found in Kisra prepared from Tabat sorghum flour fermented with 100 g FBFPF/100 g flour. Ascorbic acid, IVPD and IVSD of Kisra from both genotypes increased with FBFPF levels, with a concomitant decrease in phytate and tannin contents (P ≤ 0.05). Sensory attributes of the Kisra were enhanced in Tabat and Wad-Ahmed sorghum genotypes prepared with 50 and 100 g FBFPF/100 g flour, respectively. Application of FBFPF is known to be an effective traditional starter, and it could improve the nutritional quality of Kisra bread.


Baobab fruit pulp Sorghum genotypes Fermentation Antinutritional factors Nutritional properties 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interests

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abubaker B. Makawi
    • 1
  • Abdelmoniem I. Mustafa
    • 2
  • Oladipupo Q. Adiamo
    • 3
  • Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Grain Technology, National Food Research CenterMinistry of Science and TechnologyShambatSudan
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of KhartoumShambatSudan
  3. 3.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural SciencesKing Saud UniversityRiyadhKingdom of Saudi Arabia

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