Application of chemometric tools for the comparison of volatile profile from raw and roasted regional and foreign almond cultivars (Prunus dulcis)

  • Ivo OliveiraEmail author
  • Ricardo Malheiro
  • Anne S. Meyer
  • José Alberto Pereira
  • Berta Gonçalves
Original Article


In almonds, volatile compounds are major contributors to flavour, being scarce the current knowledge about their volatile profile. Hence, this work intended to characterize the volatile profile, using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, in raw and roasted almond cultivars (regional cvs. Amendoão, Bonita, Casanova, Molar and Pegarinhos and foreign cvs. Ferragnès and Glorieta). Overall, 35 compounds were identified, with major chemical classes being alcohols and aldehydes. In raw fruits, benzaldehyde and 3-methyl-1-butanol were key compounds, with roasting changing volatile profiles, increasing release of compounds, with predominance of hexanal and benzaldehyde. Cultivars Glorieta and Molar didn’t show significant increase in aldehyde content after roasting, which may indicate higher resistance to heat-caused oxidation. The use of linear discriminant analysis and principal components analysis permitted the recognition of patterns in the volatile profiles, that can be useful for cultivars identification. This work allowed the characterization and monitoring changes caused by roasting of volatile components of less studied almond cultivars, identifying some that can withstand roasting procedures with reduced formation of compounds associated with off-flavours.


Almond Raw Roasted Volatiles compounds Off-flavours Cultivar discrimination 



Ivo Oliveira is grateful to FCT, POPH-QREN and FSE for the Post-doctoral Fellowship SFRH/BPD/111005/2015. This work is supported by: European Investment Funds by FEDER/COMPETE/POCI—Operational Competitiveness and Internacionalization Programme, under Project POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006958 and National Funds by FCT—Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the Project UID/AGR/04033/2013.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivo Oliveira
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ricardo Malheiro
    • 2
  • Anne S. Meyer
    • 3
  • José Alberto Pereira
    • 2
  • Berta Gonçalves
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences - CITABUniversidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTADVila RealPortugal
  2. 2.Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), ESAInstituto Politécnico de BragançaBragançaPortugal
  3. 3.DTU Bioengineering, Department of Biotechnology and BiomedicineTechnical University of DenmarkKgs, LyngbyDenmark

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