Development of a carotenoid enriched probiotic yogurt from fresh biomass of Spirulina and its characterization

  • Pravin Patel
  • Hitesh Jethani
  • C. Radha
  • S. V. N. Vijayendra
  • Sandeep N. Mudliar
  • R. Sarada
  • Vikas S. ChauhanEmail author
Original Article


Incorporation of Spirulina in milk as thermally dried powder has the disadvantages of non-uniform distribution with undesirable odor and flavor. Through homogenization (200 ± 10 bar), complete dispersion of fresh Spirulina biomass (7% w/w) in milk was achieved and thereafter a carotenoid enriched probiotic yogurt was developed. Confocal microscopy revealed porous Spirulina-milk protein matrix integrated with smaller fat globules in the yogurt. Spirulina led to a 29.56% increase in Lactobacillus acidophilus count, a 20% reduction in fermentation time and a total probiotic count of 1.2 × 107 CFU mL−1. The protein, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid and β-carotene content (on dry w/w basis) were 3.58 ± 0.08 g 100 g−1, 0.407 ± 0.018 mg g−1, 0.235 ± 0.016 mg g−1 and 13.28 ± 0.08 µg g−1, respectively. During storage (18 days at 6–8 °C), the L. acidophilus count reached 8.83 ± 0.11 log CFU mL−1 with 103.03% increase in the viability by day three and the yogurt retained 71.5% carotenoids. The probiotc Spirulina yogurt was found to be acceptable to consumers as evaluated by affective consumer test.


Spirulina platensis Homgenization Fresh biomass Probiotic Fermentation β-Carotene 







Probiotic control yogurt


Probiotic Spirulina yogurt


Time taken to attain pH 4.6–4.7


Skimmed milk powder


Dry weight



Financial support from Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India; Grant BT/PR6552/PBD/26/360/2012 is gratefully acknowledged. The authors thank Director, CSIR-CFTRI for his encouragement.


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pravin Patel
    • 1
  • Hitesh Jethani
    • 1
  • C. Radha
    • 2
  • S. V. N. Vijayendra
    • 3
  • Sandeep N. Mudliar
    • 1
  • R. Sarada
    • 1
  • Vikas S. Chauhan
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Plant Cell Biotechnology DepartmentCSIR- Central Food Technological Research InstituteMysuruIndia
  2. 2.Department of Protein Chemistry and TechnologyCSIR- Central Food Technological Research InstituteMysuruIndia
  3. 3.Department of Microbiology and Fermentation TechnologyCSIR- Central Food Technological Research InstituteMysuruIndia

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