Advertisement

Analysis of the degradation of betanin obtained from beetroot using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

  • Lucia Aztatzi-Rugerio
  • Sulem Yali Granados-Balbuena
  • Yimi Zainos-Cuapio
  • Erik Ocaranza-SánchezEmail author
  • Marlon Rojas-LópezEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Betalains are vacuolar pigments present in tubers, flowers or fruits. Their use in the food industry is significant because they are considered bioactive completely safe to consume. However, betalains are susceptible to temperature which affects their stability. The most of the available methods that determine stability involve high costs, are destructive and generate waste. In this work was evaluated the thermal degradation of betalain at 75 °C for several intervals of time, by using different techniques. Colorimetry showed a change in the tone angle () from 359.76° to 20.54° after the heat-treatment, suggesting thermal degradation by changing the color from violet to red–orange. High-pressure liquid chromatography, shows the decrease of the concentration of betanin in addition to the formation of neobetanin, the main degradation product in betalains. UV–visible spectrophotometry suggest also thermal degradation of betanin, by the decrease of the absorption at 538 nm caused by the heat treatment. Finally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed a decrease in the intensity of two absorption bands at 1243 and 879 cm−1, corresponding to the C–O and C–C vibrations of the carboxylic acid respectively after heat treatment. These results suggest that the main route of degradation corresponds to decarboxylation. We propose the use of FTIR spectroscopy as a practical alternative for the analysis of the degradation of natural dyes during storage, making evident the possible use of this methodology for industrial applications.

Keywords

Betalains Decarboxylation Degradation product FTIR Heat treatment Natural dyes Neobetanin 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the economical support from National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT), Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ALTECSA S.A de C.V and Estherly M. Solis Rodriguez for English support.

References

  1. Attoe EL, Von-Elbe JH (1981) Photochemial degradation of betanine and selected anthocyanins. J Food Sci 46:1934–1937.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1981.tb04522.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Butera D, Tesoriere L, Di Gaudio F et al (2002) Antioxidant activities of sicilian prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit extracts and reducing properties of its betalains: betanin and indicaxanthin. J Agric Food Chem 50:6895–6901.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf025696p CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cai Y, Sun M, Wu H et al (1998) Characterization and quantification of betacyanin pigments from diverse Amaranthus species. J Agric Food Chem 46:2063–2070.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9709966 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cai Y-Z, Sun M, Corke H (2005) Characterization and application of betalain pigments from plants of the amaranthaceae. Trends Food Sci Technol 16:370–376.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2005.03.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Castellanos-Santiago E, Yahia EM (2008) Identification and quantification of betalains from the fruits of 10 mexican prickly pear cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 56:5758–5764.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf800362t CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Castellar MR, Obón JM, Fernández-López JA (2006) The isolation and properties of a concentrated red-purple betacyanin food colourant from Opuntia Stricta fruits. J Sci Food Agric 86:122–128.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2285 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dong J, Ozaki Y, Nakashima K (1997) Infrared, Raman, and near-infrared spectroscopic evidence for the coexistence of various hydrogen-bond forms in poly(acrylic acid). Macromolecules 30:1111–1117.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ma960693x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Esatbeyoglu T, Wagner AE, Schini-Kerth VB, Rimbach G (2015) Betanin-a food colorant with biological activity. Mol Nutr Food Res 59:36–47.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201400484 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Esteves LC, Pinheiro AC, Pioli RM et al (2018) Revisiting the mechanism of hydrolysis of betanin. Photochem Photobiol 94:853–864.  https://doi.org/10.1111/php.12897 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fernández-López JA, Angosto JM, Giménez PJ, León G (2013) Thermal stability of selected natural red extracts used as food colorants. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 68:11–17.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-013-0337-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Food and Drug Administration (2013) Listing of color aditives exempt from certification. Publishing Physics Web. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdoscs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=7340. Accessed 01 April 2019
  12. Gasztonyi MN, Daood H, Hájos MT, Biacs P (2001) Comparison of red beet (Beta vulgaris var conditiva) varieties on the basis of their pigment components. J Sci Food Agric 81:932–933.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.899 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Giménez PJ, Fernández-López JA, Angosto JM, Obón JM (2015) Comparative thermal degradation patterns of natural yellow colorants used in foods. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 70:380–387.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-015-0499-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Herbach KM, Stinzing FC, Carle R (2004a) Impact of thermal treatment on color and pigment pattern of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) preparations. J Food Sci 69:491–498.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb10994.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Herbach MK, Stintzing FC, Carle R (2004b) Thermal degradation of betacyanins in juices from purple pitaya [Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Brittonv & Rose] monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectometric analyses. Eur Food Res Technol 219:377–385.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-004-0948-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Herbach KM, Stintzing FC, Carle R (2005) Identification of heat-induced degradation products from purified betanin, phyllocactin and hylocerenin by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 19:2603–2616.  https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.2103 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Herbach KM, Stintzing FC, Carle R (2006a) Betalain stability and degradation—structural and chromatic aspects. J Food Sci 71:41–50.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00022.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Herbach KM, Stintzing FC, Carle R (2006b) Stability and color changes of thermally treated betanin, phyllocactin, and hylocerenin solutions. J Agric Food Chem 54:390–398.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf051854b CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kanner J, Harel S, Granit R (2001) Betalains—a new class of dietary cationized antioxidants. J Agric Food Chem 49:5178–5185.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010456f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kapadia GJ, Tokuda H, Konoshima T, Nishino H (1996) Chemoprevention of lung and skin cancer by Beta vulgaris (Beet) root extract. Cancer Lett 100:211–214.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3835(95)04087-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Khan MI, Giridhar P (2015) Plant betalains: chemistry and biochemistry. Phytochemistry 117:267–295.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.06.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kumar SNA, Ritesh SK, Sharmila G, Muthukumaran C (2017) Extraction optimization and characterization of water soluble red purple pigment from floral bracts of Bougainvillea glabra. Arab J Chem 10:S2145–S2150.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.07.047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kumorkiewicz A (2017) Thermal degradation of major gomphrenin pigments in the fruit juice of Basella alba L. (Malabar Spinach). J Agric Food Chem 65:7500–7508.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b02357 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McCann D, Barrett A, Cooper A et al (2007) Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 370:1560–1567.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61306-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mikołajczyk-Bator K, Pawlak S (2016) The effect of thermal treatment on antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated betalain fractions. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment 15:257–265.  https://doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2016.3.25 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Molina GA, Hernández-Martínez AR, Cortez-Valadez M et al (2014) Effects of tetraethyl orthosilicate (teos) on the light and temperature stability of a pigment from beta vulgaris and its potential food industry applications. Molecules 19:17985–18002.  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191117985 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Patil PD, Rao CR, Wasif AI et al (2014) Mass transfer enhancement through optimized extraction of a natural dye from Bougainvillea glabra Juss. bracts. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 5:332–337Google Scholar
  28. Ravichandran K, Saw NMMT, Mohdaly A et al (2013) Impact of processing of red beet on betalain content and antioxidant activity. Food Res Int 50:670–675.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.07.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Saguy I, Kopelman IJ, Mizrahi S (1978) Thermal kinetic degradation of betanin and betalamic acid. J Agric Food Chem 26:360–362.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60216a052 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schwartz SJ, Elbe JH (1983) Identification of betanin degradation products. Zeitschrift fur Leb und -forsch 176:448–453.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01042560 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schwartz SJ, von Elbe JH (1980) Quantitative determination of individual betacyanin pigments by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Agric Food Chem 28:540–543.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60229a032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sengupta D, Mondal B, Mukherjee K (2015) Visible light absorption and photo-sensitizing properties of spinach leaves and beetroot extracted natural dyes. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 148:85–92.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2015.03.120 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Simon P, Drdak M, Altamirano R (1993) Influence of water activity on the stability of betanin in various water/alcohol model systems. Food Chem 46:155–158.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(93)90029-F CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Strack D, Vogt T, Schliemann W (2003) Recent advances in betalain research. Phytochemistry 62:247–269.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00564-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Terradas F, Wyler H (1991) The secodopas, natural pigments in Hygrocybe Conica and Amanita Muscaria. Phytochemistry 30:3251–3253.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(91)83187 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Viera I, Pérez-Gálvez A, Roca M (2019) Green natural colorants. Molecules 24:154.  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24010154 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Von-Elbe JH, Maing JY, Amundson CH (1974) Color stability of betanine. J Food Sci 39:334–337.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1974.tb02888.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wybraniec S (2005) Formation of decarboxylated betacyanins in heated purified betacyanin fractions from red beet root (Beta vulgaris L.) monitored by LC-MS/MS. J Agric Food Chem 53:3483–3487.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf048088d CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucia Aztatzi-Rugerio
    • 1
  • Sulem Yali Granados-Balbuena
    • 1
  • Yimi Zainos-Cuapio
    • 2
  • Erik Ocaranza-Sánchez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marlon Rojas-López
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Centro de Investigación en Biotecnología Aplicada del Instituto Politécnico NacionalTepetitlaMexico
  2. 2.Instituto Tecnológico del Altiplano de TlaxcalaSan Diego XocoyucanMexico

Personalised recommendations