Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 56, Issue 7, pp 3547–3552 | Cite as

A non-toxic approach to assess total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of exotic tropical fruits from Thailand

  • Sirirat PanichEmail author
  • Maliwan Amatatongchai
Short Communication


A simple flow injection analysis (FIA) integrating with a metal-free approach for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was developed. The non-toxic reaction was based on generating a vibrant blue radical from imipramine to avoid the potential interferents arising from the colorful fruit extracts. The blue radical can be rapidly scavenged by antioxidant compounds present in the sample. TAC values of Thai tropical fruit extracts were assessed by monitoring the quenching in absorbance of the test mixture following the addition of the antioxidant compounds/fruit extracts. The FIA co-operated in order to increase the sample throughput. The results demonstrated that Antidesma thwaiteaianum Muell. Arg. has the highest capacity followed by Terminalia chebula Retz. and Phyllanthus Emblica Linn., respectively. An excellent correlation between the proposed method was found with the DPPH assay. The proposed method allowed the TAC determination of fruit extracts in a high-throughput and straightforward way in accordance with the principles of green analytical chemistry.


A non-toxic approach Flow-based analysis Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) Imipramine Tropical fruits 



This research was supported by The Thailand Research Fund (TRF) in the project of Thai Fruits-Functional Fruits, Project Number RDG5420028. Topic: Total Antioxidant Capacity of Thai North East’s Fruits, Project Manager: Ms. Sirirat Panich. The authors also would like to acknowledge Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Phra Nakhon.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13197_2019_3801_MOESM1_ESM.doc (58.9 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 60346 kb)


  1. Alam MN, Bristi NJ, Rafiquzzaman M (2013) Review on in vivo and in vitro methods evaluation of antioxidant activity. Saudi Pharm J 21:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arancibia P, Fernando A, SeoPark Y, TeckJung S, GookKang S, GuHeo B, HyunLee S, Sajewicz M, Kowalska T, Gorinstein S (2008) Antioxidant properties of durian fruit as influenced by ripening. LWT-Food Sci Technol 41:2118–2125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bharucha Z, Pretty J (2010) The roles and values of wild foods in agricultural systems. Philos. Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 365:2913–2926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borg DC (1965) Free radicals from imipramine. Biochem Pharmacol 14:115–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chotchoungchatchai S, Saralamp P, Jenjittikul T, Pornsiripongse S, Prathanturarug S (2012) Medicinal plants used with thai traditional medicine in modern healthcare services: a case study in Kabchoeng Hospital, Surin Province. Thailand J Ethnopharmacol 141:193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Das L, Bhaumik E, Raychaudhuri U, Chakraborty R (2012) Role of nutraceuticals in human health. J Food Sci Technol 49:173–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dawidowicz AL, Olszowy M, Dolęba MJ (2015) Importance of solvent association in the estimation of antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds by DPPH method. J Food Sci Technol 52:4523–4529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dembitsky VM, Poovarodom S, Leontowicz H, Leontowicz M, Vearasilp S, Trakhtenberg S, Gorinstein S (2011) The multiple nutrition properties of some exotic fruits: biological activity and active metabolites. Food Res Int 44:1671–1701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Elfant M, Keen CL (1987) Sodium vanadate toxicity in adult and developing rats: role of peroxidative damage. Biol Trace Elem Res 14:193–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ghiselli AL, Serafini M, Natella F, Scaccini C (2000) Total antioxidant capacity as a tool to assess redox status: critical view and experimental data. Free Radic Biol Med 29:1106–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gondokesumo ME, Pardjianto B, Sumitro SB, Widowati W, Dimyati A (2018) Microstructural characterization of the garcinia mangostana fruit at different maturity level. J Nat Remedies 18:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. International Standard, ISO 14502-1:2005(E). (2005) Determination of substance characteristic of green and black tea-Part 1: Content of total polyphenols in tea-Colorimetric method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Accessed 22 Nov 2018
  13. Johnson N (2002) Environmental change in Northern Thailand: Impact on wild edible plant availability. Ecol Food Nutr 41:373–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kaprasob R, Kerdchoechuen O, Laohakunjit N, Thumthanaruk B, Shetty K (2018) Changes in physico-chemical, astringency, volatile compounds and antioxidant activity of fresh and concentrated cashew apple juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum. J Food Sci Technol 55:3979–3990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kim DO, Lee KW, Lee HJ, Lee CY (2002) Vitamin C Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (VCEAC) of Phenolic Phytochemicals. J Agric Food Chem 50:3713–3717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kubola J, Siriamornpun S, Meeso N (2011) Phytochemicals, vitamin C and sugar content of Thai wild fruits. Food Chem. 126:972–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Misiuk W (2000) Spectrophotometry assay of imipramine and desipramine using ammonium metavanadate and its application to pharmaceutical preparations. J Pharm Biomed Anal 22:189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Panich S (2018a) A novel assay for evaluation of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) using a nontoxic probe. Thai J Pharm Sci 42:21–26Google Scholar
  19. Panich S (2018b) A novel approach to assess the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by flow injection analysis. Int J Chem Res. Google Scholar
  20. Pisoschi AM, Negulescu GP (2012) Methods for total antioxidant activity determination: a review. Biochem Anal Biochem. Google Scholar
  21. Rumainum IM, Worarad K, Srilaong V, Yamane K (2018) Fruit quality and antioxidant capacity of six Thai mango cultivars. Agric Nat Resour 52:208–214Google Scholar
  22. Siriamornpun S, Suttajit M (2010) Microchemical components and antioxidant activity of different morphological parts of thai wild purslane (Portulaca oleracea). Weed Sci 58:182–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wang H, Cao G, Prior RL (1996) Total antioxidant capacity of fruits. J Agric Food Chem 44:701–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wei CI, Bayati MAA, Culbertson MR, Rosenblatt LS, Hansen LD (1982) Acute toxicity of ammonium metavanadate in mice. J Toxicol Environ Health 10:673–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yan F, Yu X (2018) Optimized preparation, characterization, and antioxidant activity of chitooligosaccharide–glycine Maillard reaction products. J Food Sci Technol 55:712–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Science, Faculty of Science and TechnologyRajamangala University of Technology Phra NakhonBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUbon Ratchathani UniversityUbon RatchathaniThailand

Personalised recommendations