Valorization of papaya (Carica papaya L.) agroindustrial waste through the recovery of phenolic antioxidants by supercritical fluid extraction
- 10 Downloads
In this work, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for the recovery of phenolic antioxidants from papaya agroindustrial waste (seeds) was explored, making use of neat supercritical CO2 and CO2 added with ethanol (CO2-EtOH). A full factorial design played on in order to evaluate the effect of CO2 extraction parameters (temperature between 40 and 60 °C, and pressure between 10 and 30 MPa) on yield and total phenols content (TPC), then ethanol was applied as a co-solvent and its effect on the recovery of phenolics was analyzed. The SFE was compared to the conventional extraction using ethanol. The antioxidant activity of all extracts was evaluated, and the phenolic composition in selected extracts was assessed by HPLC-ESI-MS. The highest extraction yields (21.02–26.46%) and TPC (15.34–34.23 mgGAE/g) were found in extracts obtained with CO2-EtOH and ethanol. Good and selective phenolic recovery was obtained by using CO2-EtOH, (44.81% of TPC recovered). The CO2-EtOH extracts showed high radical scavenging activity and higher antioxidant effect against lipid oxidation. Some phenolic acids and flavonoids were observed in the extracts with better antioxidants properties. The results showed that SFE is a suitable green technology for the phenolic recovery from papaya agroindustrial waste, and also an alternative for its valorization.
KeywordsAgroindustrial by-products Papaya seeds Green extraction Phenolic antioxidants Food preservatives
The authors are grateful to the DIB at Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Project: 201010021085), and to the Brazilian founding agency CNPq (Process Number 473153/2012-2) for the financial support. Also, Alimentos SAS and Duquesa (Bogotá-Colombia) for the papaya seeds and the VEO samples.
- Castro-Vargas HI, Baumann W, Parada-Alfonso F (2016) Valorization of agroindustrial wastes: identification by LC-MS and NMR of benzylglucosinolate from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds, a protective agent against lipid oxidation in edible oils. Electrophoresis 37:1930–1937. https://doi.org/10.1002/elps.201500499 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Desai U, Wagh A (1995) Papaya. In: Salunkhe DK, Kadam SS (eds) Handbook of fruit science and technology: production, composition, storage and processing, 1st edn. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp 297–314Google Scholar
- Faisal RS, Raju CV, Lakshmisha IP, Singh RR (2016) Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of grape and papaya seed extracts and their application on the preservation of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during ice storage. J Food Sci Technol 53:104–117. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-1983-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- FAO-Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAOSTAT (2016) http://www.fao.org/faostat/es/#data/QC/visualize. Accessed 22 Oct 2018
- Herrero M, Sanchez-Camargo A, Cifuentes A, Ibañez E (2015) Plants, seaweeds, microalgae and food by-products as natural sources of functional ingredients obtained using pressurized liquid extraction and supercritical fluid extraction. Trends Anal Chem 71:26–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2015.01.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kadiri O, Akanbi CT, Olawoye BT, Gbadamosi SO (2017) Characterization and antioxidant evaluation of phenolic compounds extracted from the protein concentrate and protein isolate produced from pawpaw (Carica papaya Linn.) seeds. Int J Food Prop 20:2423–2436. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2016.1230874 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kao TH, Chen BH (2013) Fruits and vegatables. In: Chandrasekaran M (ed) Valorization of food processing by-products, 1st edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 517–557Google Scholar
- Lin C, Pfaltzgraff LA, Herrero-Davila L, Mubofu EB, Abderrahim S, Clark JH, Koutinas AA, Kopsahelis N, Stamatelatou K, Dickson F, Thankappan S, Mohamed Z, Brocklesby R, Luque R (2013) Food waste as a valuable resource for the production of chemicals, materials and fuels. Current situation and global perspective. Energy Environ Sci 6:426–464. https://doi.org/10.1039/c2ee23440h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mazzutti S, Gonçalves Rodrigues LG, Mezzomo N, Venturi V, Ferreira SRS (2018) Integrated green-based processes using supercritical CO2 and pressurized ethanol applied to recover antioxidant compounds from cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bean hulls. J Supercrit Fluids 135:52–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2017.12.039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pérez C, Ruiz del Castillo ML, Gil C, Blanch GP, Flores G (2015) Supercritical fluid extraction of grape seeds: extract chemical composition, antioxidant activity and inhibition of nitrite production in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. Food Func 8:2607–2613. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5fo00325c CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zetzel C, Brunner G, Meireles MAA (2003) Standardized low-cost batch SFE Units for University education and comparative research. In: 6th International symposium on supercritical fluids. Versailles FranceGoogle Scholar