β-Carotene solid dispersion prepared by hot-melt technology improves its solubility in water

  • Kenji Ishimoto
  • Shohei Miki
  • Akane Ohno
  • Yuta Nakamura
  • Shuichi Otani
  • Mikihiko NakamuraEmail author
  • Shinsaku NakagawaEmail author
Short Communication


β-Carotene is a member of the carotenoid family and is a red–orange pigment abundantly present in many vegetables and fruits. As an antioxidant, it eliminates excessive reactive oxygen species generated in the body. Accordingly, it has potential to be used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. β-Carotene has a very low water solubility and low bioavailability; thus, there is a need to develop techniques to overcome these issues. In this study, we aimed to enhance the water solubility of β-carotene by using hot-melt technology, a type of solid dispersions technology. When preparing β-carotene solid dispersion using this method, suitable conditions for the emulsifiers and mixing ratios were investigated using water solubility as an index. Setting the weight ratio of β-carotene:polyvinylpyrrolidone:sucrose fatty acid ester to 10%:70%:20% resulted in the poorly-water soluble β-carotene showing improved water solubility (120 μg/mL). The physicochemical properties of the optimized β-carotene solid dispersion were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffraction. The solid dispersion was found to have an amorphous structure. The improved solubility observed for β-carotene in the solid dispersions developed in this work may make these dispersions useful as additives in foods or in nutraceutical formulations.


β-Carotene Emulsifier Water solubility Hot-melt technology Solid dispersion Amorphous 



We thank BASF Japan Ltd. for technical advice. We thank Dr. Kiyohito Yagi (Osaka University) for technical support.


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenji Ishimoto
    • 1
  • Shohei Miki
    • 1
  • Akane Ohno
    • 1
  • Yuta Nakamura
    • 1
  • Shuichi Otani
    • 1
  • Mikihiko Nakamura
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shinsaku Nakagawa
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Graduate School of Pharmaceutical SciencesOsaka UniversitySuitaJapan

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