Advertisement

Development of high yielding strain of Pleurotus tuber-regium: fructification, nutritional and phylogenetic studies

  • Comfort Olukemi BamigboyeEmail author
  • Julius Kola Oloke
  • Joanna Felicity Dames
Original Article
  • 7 Downloads

Abstract

Mushrooms are nutritionally rich, healthy and medicinal. Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr.) is one of the nutritious medicinal mushroom found in the tropics and subtropics, but with history of slow growth and low sclerotia yield. In this study, mutants were created by mycelia exposure to ultraviolet irradiation (at a wavelength of 254 nm and a distance of 45 cm), for 3 h and sub-cultured at 30 min interval. The DNA from the wild and mutant strains were extracted, PCR amplified and sequenced. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to show the degree of similarity and differences between the wild and the mutant strains. Fructification studies were conducted on Rhodes grass straw and sawdust to determine the viability of the mutant strains and any nutritional improvement. The wild strain of P. tuber-regium and mutant produced at 30 min (Pt30) cultivated on sawdust and Rhodes straw, yielded sclerotia with biological efficiency of 8.8 and 47.6% respectively. Proximate analysis of the sclerotium showed that the mutant, Pt30, had improved nutritional compositions compared to the wild strain with a total non-structural carbohydrate concentration of 2.41 g as against 0.93 g. Conclusively in this study, better strains of P. tuber-regium were produced with faster growth rate, higher mycelia ramification rate on lignocellulosic substrate and a higher sclerotia yield than the wild P. tuber-regium. It was also established that mutagenesis is capable of improving P. tuber-regium for a successful commercial venture in sclerotia production.

Keywords

Mushroom improvement Sclerotium cultivation Mutagenesis DNA nucleotide sequence Proximate analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Organization of Women in Science for the developing world (OWSD) for granting additional funding for the proximate analysis. In addition, one of the authors, Bamigboye, C.O. is grateful to OWSD for the postgraduate fellowship award given to her which was utilized in Rhodes University, and also to LAUTECH, Ogbomoso for granting the study leave.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abidin MHZ, Abdullah N, Abidin NZ (2017) Therapeutic properties of Pleurotus species (Oyster mushrooms) for Atherosclerosis: a review. Int J Food Prop 20:1251–1261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams S, Che D, Hailong J, Zhao B, Rui H, Danquah K, Qin G (2019) Effects of pulverized oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on diarrhea incidence, growth performance, immunity, and microbial composition in piglets. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9582
  3. Adams S, Che D, Hailong J, Zhao B, Rui H, Danquah K, Qin G (2019b) Effects of pulverized oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on diarrhea incidence, growth performance, immunity, and microbial composition in piglets. J Sci Food Agric.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9582 Google Scholar
  4. Adedokun OM, Thomas R (2016) Determination of appropriate growth medium for production of sclerotia in pleurotus tuber-regium. J Agric Food Sci 14(2):15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Agomuo EN (2011) Proximate, phytochemical and mineral element analysis of the sclerotium of Pleurotus tuber-regium. Int Sci Res J 3:104–107Google Scholar
  6. Akobundu ENT, Eluchie GU (1992) Quality characteristics of pork sausage containing mushroom (Pleurotus tuber-regium) and local spices. J Food Technol 1992(29):159–161Google Scholar
  7. Anyanwu NG, Mboto CI, Solomon L, Frank-Peterside N (2016) Phytochemical, proximate composition and antimicrobial potentials of Pleurotus tuber-regium sclerotium. NY Sci J 9(1):35–42Google Scholar
  8. AOAC (2003) Official methods of analysis of the association of official’s analytical chemists, 17th edn. Association of official analytical chemists, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  9. Apetorgbor AK, Dzomeku M, Apetorgbor MM (2013) Growth factors and cultivation of Pleurotus tuber-regium on selected plant wastes. Int Food Res J 20(6):3387–3393Google Scholar
  10. Bamigboye CO, Oloke JK, Dames JF (2016) Biological activity of extracellular and intracellular polysaccharides from Pleurotus tuber-regium hybrid and mutant strains. J Food Nutr Res 4(7):422–428.  https://doi.org/10.12691/jfnr-4-7-2 Google Scholar
  11. Blanding CR, Simmons SJ, Casati P, Walbot V, Stapleton AE (2007) Coordinated regulation of maize genes during increasing exposure to ultraviolet radiation: identification of ultraviolet-responsive genes, functional processes and associated potential promoter motifs. Plant Biotechnol J 5(6):677–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cardwell G, Bornman JF, James AP, Black LJ (2018) A review of mushrooms as a potential source of dietary Vitamin D. Nutrients 10:1498.  https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101498 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Casati P, Walbot V (2003) Gene expression profiling in response to ultraviolet radiation in maize genotypes with varying flavonoid content. Plant Physiol 132(4):1739–1754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Challen MP, Elliott TJ (1987) Production and evaluation of fungicide resistant mutants in the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Trans Br Mycological Soc 88(4):433–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chang ST, Miles PG (1989) The nutritional attributes and medicinal value of edible mushrooms. Edible mushrooms and their cultivation, pp 27–40.  https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203492086.ch2
  16. Cho IH, Namgung H-J, Choi H-K, Kim Y-S (2007) Volatiles and key odorants in the pileus and stipe of pine-mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.). Food Chem 106:71–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. El-Fallal AA, El-Sayed AKA, El-Gharabawy HM (2013) Induction of low sporulating-UV mutant of oyster mushroom with high content of vitamin D2. In: 3rd International conference on biotechnology and its application in botany and microbiology, 17–18 April 2013Google Scholar
  18. Fasidi IO, Ekuere UU (1993) Studies on Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fries) Singer: cultivation, proximate composition and mineral contents of sclerotia. Food Chem 44:255–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fasidi IO, Olorunmaiye KS (1994) Studies on the requirements for vegetative growth of Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr.) Singer, a Nigerian mushroom. Food Chem 50:397–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Feeney MJ, Miller AM, Roupas P (2014) Mushrooms—biologically distinct and nutritionally unique: exploring a “third food kingdom”. Nutr Today 49(6):301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Galleymore HB (1948) The development of fructifications of Lentinus tuber-regium Fries, in culture. Trans Br Mycological Soc 32:315–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gargano ML, van Griensven LJ, Isikhuemhen OS, Lindequist U, Venturella G, Wasser SP, Zervakis GI (2017) Medicinal mushrooms: valuable biological resources of high exploitation potential. Plant Biosyst Int J Deal Asp Plant Biol 151(3):548–565Google Scholar
  23. Golak-Siwulska I, Kałużewicz A, Spiżewski T, Siwulski M, Sobieralski K (2018) Bioactive compounds and medicinal properties of Pleurotus sp. Folia Hort.  https://doi.org/10.2478/fhort-2018-0012 Google Scholar
  24. Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds) (2012) PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, Cambridge, pp 3–10Google Scholar
  25. Isikhuemhen OS, Moncalvo J-M, Nerud F, Vilgalys R (2000) Mating compatibility and phylogeography in Pleurotus tube-rregium. Mycology Res 104(6):732–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Iwuagwu MA, Onyekweli IO (2002) Preliminary investigation into the use of Pleurotus tuber-regium powder as a tablet disintegrant. Trop J Pharm Res 1:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jonathan SG, Okon CB, Oyelakin AO, Oluranti OO (2012) Nutritional values of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm. Cultivated on different agricultural wastes. Nat Sci 10(9):186–191Google Scholar
  28. Kadnikova IA, Costa R, Kalenik TK, Guruleva ON, Yanguo S (2015) Chemical composition and nutritional value of the mushroom Auricularia auricula-judae. J Food Nutr Res 3(8):478–482Google Scholar
  29. Keegan RJ, Lu Z, Bogusz JM, Williams JE, Holick MF (2013) Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans. Dermatoendocrinology 5:165–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kim KC, Kim IG (1999) Ganoderma lucidum extract protects DNA from strand breakage caused hydroxyl radical and UV irradiation. Int J Mol Med 4:273–277Google Scholar
  31. Kim SW, Hwang HJ, Lee BC, Yun JW (2007) Submerged production and characterization of Grifola frondosa polysaccharides—A new application to cosmeceuticals. Food Technol Biotechnol 45(3):295–305Google Scholar
  32. Kim MS, Lee KT, Jeon SM, Ka KH (2013) The quantities of methyl orsellinate and sparassol of Sparassis latifolia by host plants. Kor J Mycol 41:236–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Krings U, Berger RG (2014) Dynamics of sterols and fatty acids during UV-B treatment of oyster mushroom. Food Chem 149:10–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kuforiji OO, Fasidi IO (2009) Biodegradation of agro-industrial wastes by an edible mushroom Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr.). J Environ Biol 30(3):355–358Google Scholar
  35. Lam KL, Si K, Wu X, Tang S, Sun X, Kwan HS, Cheung PCK (2018) The diploid genome of the only sclerotia-forming wild-type species in the genus Pleurotus-Pleurotus tuber-regium-provides insights into the mechanism of its biomass conversion from lignocellulose substrates. J Biotechnol 283:22–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Manter DK, Vivanco JM (2007) Use of the ITS primers, ITS1F and ITS4, to characterize fungal abundance and diversity in mixed-template samples by qPCR and length heterogeneity analysis. J Microbiol Methods 71(1):7–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Moore D (2003). Fungal morphogenesis. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.National Academy of Sciences. Dietary, functional, and total fiber. In: Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (Ma-cronutritents); The National Academies Press: Washington, DC, p 265Google Scholar
  38. Nakagawa H (2009) Induced mutations in plant breeding and biological researches in Japan. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, pp 51–58Google Scholar
  39. Nei M, Kumar S (2000) Molecular evolution and phylogenetics. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Nwokolo E (1987) Composition of nutrients in the sclerotium of the mushroom Pleurotus tuber-regium. Plant Foods and Human Nutrition 37:133–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ohiri RC (2018) Nutriceutical potential of Pleurotus tuber-regium sclerotium. Ukrainian Biochem J 90(3):84–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Okhuoya JA, Etugo JE (1993) Studies of the cultivation of Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr.) Sing. and edible mushroom. Bioresour Technol 44:1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Okhuoya JA, Okogbo FO (1990) Induction of edible sclerotia of Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr) Sing. in the laboratory. Annal Appl Biol 117:295–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Oso BA (1977) Pleurotus tuber-regium from Nigeria. Mycologia 69:271–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Patel Y, Naraian R, Sunita K, Abbasi P, Singh VK (2013) A new antibiotic resistant mutant of Pleurotus sajor-caju with improved expression of malate dehydrogenase enzyme. Int J Adv Life Sci 6(1):36–43Google Scholar
  46. Ryoo R, Sou H-D, Ka K-H, Park H (2018) Elicitorinduced β-glucan contents in fruit body of cauliflower mushroom (Sparassis latifolia). Forest Sci Technol 14(3):119–125.  https://doi.org/10.1080/21580103.2018.1475307 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sharma R, Sharma BS (2014) Strain improvement in Pleurotus Ostreatus using UV light and ethyl methyl sulfonate as mutagens. African J Microbiol Res 8(5):432–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sneath PHA, Sokal RR (1973) Numerical taxonomy. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  49. Taofiq O, Fernandes Â, Barros L, Barreiro MF, Ferreira IC (2017) UV-irradiated mushrooms as a source of vitamin D2: A review. Trends Food Sci Technol 70:82–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S (2013) MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol 30:2725–2729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ude CM, Ezenwugo AEN, Agu RC (2001) Composition and food value of sclerotium (Osu) and edible mushroom (Pleurotus tuber-regium). J Food Sci Technol 38:612–614Google Scholar
  52. Usman SB, Kyari SU, Abdulrahman FI, Ogbe AO, Ahmad GY, Ibrahim UI, Sakuma AM (2012) Proximate composition, phytochemical and elemental analysis of some organic solvent extract of the wild mushroom- Ganoderma lucidum. J Nat Sci Res 2:24–35Google Scholar
  53. Won DJ, Kim SY, Jang CH, Lee JS, Ko JA, Park HJ (2018) Optimization of UV irradiation conditions for the vitamin D2-fortified shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) using response surface methodology. Food Sci Biotechnol 27(2):417–424Google Scholar
  54. Wong KH, Cheung PCK, Wu JZ (2003) Biochemical and microstructural characteristics of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber prepared from mushroom sclerotia of Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporus rhinoceros and Wolfiporia cocos. J Agric Food Chem 51:7197–7202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wu GH, Hu T, Li ZY, Huang ZL, Jiang JG (2014) In vitro antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides from Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr.) Sing. Food Chem 148:351–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zadrazil F (1996) Pleurotus (Lentinus) tuber-regium. Mushroom Inf 109:24–29Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and MicrobiologyRhodes UniversityGrahamstownSouth Africa
  2. 2.Microbiology Unit, Department of Pure and Applied BiologyLadoke Akintola University of TechnologyOgbomosoNigeria

Personalised recommendations