Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 56, Issue 7, pp 3239–3253 | Cite as

The dual functions of flavor and antioxidant potential of porcine bone marrow extract (PBME)

  • Dongyu Shen
  • Aygul Alim
  • Ali Raza
  • Huanlu SongEmail author
  • Yu Zhang
  • Lei Zhang
  • Peng Liu
Original Article


To improve and confirm the dual functions of flavor and antioxidant potential of porcine bone marrow extract (PBME). Response surface methodology and Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of PBME. The optimal hydrolysis conditions were: hydrolysis time, 3h; temperature, 55 °C; substrate concentration, 375g/L; and amount of enzyme, 0.4%. L16(35) orthogonal experimental was utilized to obtain the optimal Maillard reaction conditions for PBME and enzymatic hydrolysate of PBME (EH-PBME). The optimal conditions for PBME were: components, 4% glucose, 2% xylose, 1.5% Tyr, 1.5% Ala, and 4% VB1; reaction time, 40 min; and reaction temperature, 115 °C. The optimal conditions for EH-PBME were: components, 2% glucose, 2% xylose, 3% Ala, and 5% VB1; reaction time, 40 min; temperature, 110 °C. The antioxidant activities for PBME, EH-PBME, Maillard reaction products of PBME (MPRs A) and Maillard reaction products of EH-PBME (MPRs B) were 50%, 86%, 84% and 41% respectively. The content of taste-active substances and volatile compounds were also determined. Finally, PLSR was employed to evaluate the correlation between flavor compounds and sensory data.


Porcine bone marrow extract (PBME) Enzymatic hydrolysis Maillard reaction Sensory evaluation Antioxidant Partial least squares regression (PLSR) 



  1. Alim A, Song HL, Liu Y, Zou TT, Zhang Y, Zhang SP (2018) Flavor-active compounds in thermally treated yeast extracts. J Sci Food Agric 98:3774–3783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bursal E, Köksal E (2011) Evaluation of reducing power and radical scavenging activities of water and ethanol extracts from sumac (Rhus coriaria, L). Food Res Int 44:2217–2221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen J, Li L, Yi R (2016) Extraction and characterization of acid-soluble collagen from scales and skin of tilapia (Oreochromis Nilotic us). LWT Food Sci Technol 66:453–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheung LKY, Aluko RE, Cliff MA (2015) Effects of exopeptidase treatment on antihypertensive activity and taste attributes of enzymatic whey protein hydrolysates. J Funct Foods 13:262–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cho IH, Choi HK, Kim YS (2010) Comparison of umami-taste active components in the pileus and stipe of pine mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake, Sing.) of different grades. Food Chem 118:804–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Christoph CA, Davidek T (2003) Formation of aroma compounds from ribose and cysteine during the Maillard reaction. J Agric Food Chem 51:2714–2721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cui YL, Zhang HM, Yuan Y (2018) Antioxidant properties of peanut meal hydrolysates and its Maillard products. Food Res Dev 39:20–25Google Scholar
  8. Dou YF, Liu F, Zhang WH (2007) Comparative analysis of response surface modeling methods. J Eng Des 14:159–163Google Scholar
  9. Ergon R (2014) Principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR). In: Mathematical and statistical methods in food science and technology. Wiley, pp 121–142Google Scholar
  10. Fengou LC, Lianou A, Tsakanikas P, Gkana EN, Panagou EZ, Nychas GE (2019) Evaluation of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and multispectral imaging as means of estimating the microbiological spoilage of farmed sea bream. Food Microb 79:27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gao LL, Wang ZY, Zheng L (2018) The characterization of acid and pepsin soluble collagen from ovine bones (Ujumuqin sheep). J Integr Agric 17:704–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hakalin NLS, Molina GM, Prieto A (2018) Optimization of lipase-catalyzed synthesis of β-sitostanol esters by response surface methodology. Food Chem 261:139–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jacquelin B, Marcus RD (2005) Culinary applications of umami. Food Technol 59:24–30Google Scholar
  14. Kang L, Song HL (2017) Effects of pH value on flavor characteristics of beef enzymatic Maillard products. Food Sci (China) 38:25–32Google Scholar
  15. Kchaou H, Benbettaïeb N, Jridi M, Abdelhedi O, Karbowiak T, Brachais CH, Léonard ML, Debeaufort F, Nasri Moncef (2018) Enhancement of structural, functional and antioxidant properties of fish gelatin films using Maillard reactions. Food Hydrocoll 83:326–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kerscher R, Grosch W (1997) Comparative evaluation of potent odorants of boiled beef by aroma extract dilution and concentration analysis. Z Lebens Fors A 204:3–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kopple JD, Swendseid ME (1975) Evidence that histidine is an essential amino acid in normal and chronically uremic man. J Clin Investig 55:881–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lafarga T, Hayes M (2016) Bioactive protein hydrolysates in the functional food ingredient industry: overcoming current challenges. Food Rev Int 33:217–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liao L, Zhao MM, Cui C (2009) Research progress on the contribution of peptides and amino acids to food taste. Food Ferment Ind 12:107–113Google Scholar
  20. Liu R, Xing L, Fu Q (2016) A review of antioxidant peptides derived from meat muscle and by-products. Antioxid 5:32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mohammadkhah M, Murphy P, Simms CK (2017) Collagen fibril organization in chicken and porcine skeletal muscle perimysium under applied tension and compression. J Mech Behav Biomed 77:734–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mullen AM, Álvarez C, Zeugolis DI (2017) Alternative uses for co-products: harnessing the potential of valuable compounds from meat processing chains. Meat Sci 206:15–33Google Scholar
  23. National Bureau of Statistics (2018) Statistical communique of the 2017 national economic and social development of the People’s Republic of ChinaGoogle Scholar
  24. Oechsle AM, Akgün D, Krause F (2016) Microstructure and physical–chemical properties of chicken collagen. Food Struct 7:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pepe G, Sommella E, Ventre G (2016) Antioxidant peptides released from gastrointestinal digestion of “Stracchino” soft cheese: characterization, in vitro intestinal protection and bioavailability. J Funct Foods 26:494–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rajapakse N, Mendis E, Jung WK (2005) Purification of a radical scavenging peptide from fermented mussel sauce and its antioxidant properties. Food Res Int 38:175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ryder K, Ael DB, Mcconnell M (2016) Towards generation of bioactive peptides from meat industry waste proteins: generation of peptides using commercial microbial proteases. Food Chem 208:42–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Skelton M, Miller R, Prusa K (2010) Sensory evaluation of food, vol 84. Springer, New York, pp 664–668Google Scholar
  29. Song N, Tan C, Huang M, Liu P, Karangwa E, Zhang XM, Xia S (2013) Transglutaminase cross-linking effect on sensory characteristics and antioxidant activities of Maillard reaction products from soybean protein hydrolysates. Food Chem 136:144–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Su GW (2012) Study on enzymatic hydrolysis of peanut and its product characteristics. Ph.D. thesis. South China University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  31. Sun HM, Wang JZ, Zhang CH (2015) Changes of flavor compounds of hydrolyzed chicken bone extracts during Maillard reaction. J Food Sci 79:C2415–C2426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tan J, Li R, Jiang ZT, Tang SH, Wang Y (2019) Rapid and non-destructive prediction of methylxanthine and cocoa solid contents in dark chocolate by synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and PLSR. J Food Compos Anal 77:20–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tan X, Qi L, Fan F (2018) Analysis of volatile compounds and nutritional properties of enzymatic hydrolysate of protein from cod bone. Food Chem 264:350–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tao DC (2011) Research on the seasoning of bone meal. Chin Condiment 36:72–74Google Scholar
  35. Wang G, Wang X, Song XB, Zheng XJ (2018) Comparison between BBD and CCD in response surface methodology to optimize preparation conditions of mercaptoacetyl chitosan. J Environ Eng (China) 12:2502–2511Google Scholar
  36. Wang HW (1999) Partial least squares regression method and its application. National Defense Industry Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  37. Wang JY, Zhu SG, Xu CF (2008) Biochemistry tutorial. Higher Education Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  38. Wong KH, Li GQ, Li KM (2017) Optimisation of Pueraria isoflavonoids by response surface methodology using ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Food Chem 231:231–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wu RB, Wu CL, Liu D (2017) Antioxidant and anti-freezing peptides from salmon collagen hydrolysate prepared by bacterial extracellular protease. Food Chem 248:346–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Xie JC, Sun BG, Liu YP (2004) Analysis of degradation of aroma components by vitamin B1 under microwave heating. Food Sci (China) 25:241–244Google Scholar
  41. Xu HN (2017) Study of the inhibition capacity of Maillard reaction products derived from cysteine on tyrosinase-catalyzed enzymatic browning. Ph.D. thesis. Jiangnan UniversityGoogle Scholar
  42. Yang MX, Shen CY, Zhang GS (2007) Study on extraction of pig bone flavor substance (I)—optimal process conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of pork bone. Food Sci (China) 28:210–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yu H (2016) Preparation and antioxidative activity of deer bone collagen. Master thesis. Changchun University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhang MX, Chen SY, Li L (2016) Research progress of flavor peptides in foods. J Chin Inst Food Sci Technol 16:209–217Google Scholar
  45. Zhao CJ, Schieber A, Michael GG (2016) Formation of taste-active amino acids, amino acid derivatives and peptides in food fermentations—A review. Food Res Int 89:39–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhao DB, Chen W, Bai YH (2010) Status and development trend of development and utilization of osteosynthesis. Meat Ind 1:9–12Google Scholar
  47. Zhou C, Hu J, Ma H (2015) Antioxidant peptides from corn gluten meal: orthogonal design evaluation. Food Chem 187:270–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Innovation Center of Food Nutrition and Human Health, Laboratory of Molecular Sensory ScienceBeijing Technology and Business UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Fushun Dufengxuan Gushen Biotechnology Co., Ltd.FushunChina

Personalised recommendations