Evaluation of vacuum impregnation as a novel approach for soaking of fried Gulabjamun balls

  • SharanabasavaEmail author
  • Menon Rekha Ravindra
  • Y. S. Praveen Kumar
  • M. Manjunatha
  • G. Mahesh Kumar
  • B. Surendra Nath
Short Communication


Vacuum impregnation of sugar syrup into sub-baric fried Gulabjamun was evaluated as a technological approach to prepare a product of most acceptable quality. Sugar syrup concentrations (40, 50 and 60 °Brix) in combination with process time (2, 4 and 6 min) were analyzed for their effect on product quality in terms of its overall acceptability, expansion ratio, hardness, juiciness and sugar content. The effect of the process conditions on the five listed responses during the vacuum impregnation process was evaluated using response surface methodology and modelled using a second order polynomial equation. The optimum combination was obtained as soaking in a syrup of 55 °Brix for 5 min and was experimentally validated for its real time adequacy. The experimental values of the quality parameters thus obtained were found to be in close agreement with the predicted values.


Vacuum impregnation Sugar syrup Gulabjamun Quality Optimization 



The authors acknowledge fellowship and infrastructure received from ICAR-NDRI (SRS) to carry out the research work.

Supplementary material

13197_2019_3734_MOESM1_ESM.docx (15 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 15 kb)


  1. Barat JM, Talens P, Barrera C, Chiralt A, Fito P (2002) Pineapple candying at mild temperature by applying vacuum impregnation. J Food Sci 67:3046–3052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chetana R, Manohar B, Reddy RYS (2004) Process optimisation of Gulab jamun, an Indian traditional sweet, using sugar substitutes. Eur Food Res Technol 219:386–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. De S (2003) Outlines of dairy technology. Oxford University Press, New Delhi (Appendix IV) Google Scholar
  4. Derossi A, De Pilli T, Severini C (2012) The application of vacuum impregnation techniques in food industry. In: Valdez B (ed) Scientific, health and social aspects of the food industry. IntechOpen Ltd, London, pp 25–56Google Scholar
  5. Fito P, Andrés A, Chiralt A, Pardo P (1996) Coupling of hydrodynamic mechanism and deformation-relaxation phenomena during vacuum treatments in solid porous food-liquid systems. J Food Engg 27:229–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ghosh BC, Rajorhia GS, Pal D (1984) Formulation and storage studies of gulab jamun mix powder. Ind J Dairy Sci 37:362–368Google Scholar
  7. Jauregui CA, Regenstein JM, Baker RC (1981) A simple centrifugal method for measuring expressible moisture, a water-binding property of muscle foods. J Food Sci 46:1271–1271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Joshi MU, Sarkar A, Singhal RS, Pandit AB (2012) Optimizing the formulation and processing conditions of gulab jamun: a statistical design. Intl J Food Prop 12:162–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kumar MG, Ravindra MR (2016) Design of vacuum impregnation chamber for soaking of Gulabjamun in sugar syrup and optimization of wall thickness by finite element analysis (FEA). Int J Environ Agric Biotechnol 2:08–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kumar AJ, Singh RRB, Patel AA, Patil GR (2006) Kinetics of colour and texture changes in Gulabjamun balls during deep-fat frying. LWT Food Sci Technol 39:827–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kushwaha R, Singh V, Prakash M, Kaur D (2017) Optimization study of sweeteners for preparation of syrup for sugar free traditional sweet: gulab jamun. Intl J Cur Res Rev 9:45–53Google Scholar
  12. Luciana HC, Souza JAR, Petrus JCC, Laurindo JB (2005) Salting of minas cheese by vacuum impregnation. Food Sci Technol 25:487–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Pantulu PC, Unnikrishnan V, Rama Murthy MK (2014) A study on Seliwanoff’s colour reaction for estimation of sucrose in dairy products. J Food Sci Technol 19(3):113–115Google Scholar
  14. Radziejewska-Kubdzela E, Biegańska-Marecik R, Kidoń M (2014) Applicability of vacuum impregnation to modify physico-chemical, sensory and nutritive characteristics of plant origin products—a review. Intl J Mol Sci 15:16577–16610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rajorhia GS, Pal D (1989) Storage quality of Gulabjamun mix-powder as influenced by flexible packages. M.Tech thesisGoogle Scholar
  16. Rangi AS, Minhas KS, Sidhu JS (1985) Indigenous milk products. I. Standardization of recipe for Gulabjamun. J Food Sci Technol 22:191–193Google Scholar
  17. Rao VHP, Singh RRB, Jha A, Patel AA (2002) Effect of sugar syrup concentration on certain physical properties of Gulab jamun prepared from a ready mix. Ind J Dairy Sci 55:270–275Google Scholar
  18. Sharanabasava, Menon Rekha R, Praveen Kumar YS, Arjun VM, Shivanand, Adarsh M (2018) Changes in moisture and fat content of Gulabjamun balls during sub-baric frying and vacuum impregnation. Int J Chem Stud 6:1108–1111Google Scholar
  19. Zhao Y, Xie J (2004) Practical applications of vacuum impregnation in fruit and vegetable processing. Tre Food Sci Technol 15:434–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Dairy EngineeringSRS of ICAR-NDRIAdugodi, BengaluruIndia
  2. 2.Dairy Science CollegeHebbal, BengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations