Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 56, Issue 4, pp 1954–1965 | Cite as

Synthesis and functional properties of gelatin/CA–starch composite film: excellent food packaging material

  • R. Kumar
  • G. GhoshalEmail author
  • M. Goyal
Original Article


In this work, citric acid (CA) modified starch/gelatin composite films were prepared by mixing modified starch and gelatin in different proportions (1:0, 1:1, 1:4, 4:1 and 0:1). Blending of chemically modified starch with food grade CA and gelatin as second polymers were studied as a new and novel approach for fabrication of eco-friendly composite films with excellent packaging properties. Taking considerations of improvement in functional properties of the films, a series of starch films were derived using CA–starch and gelatin using solution casting approach. Influence of CA (0.5%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% w/w of total starch) on functional properties (moisture content, solubility, swelling index, moisture migration rate, moisture absorption, opacity and mechanical properties) were studied. FTIR and SEM analysis were utilized to characterize the interaction between the starch chains and surface morphology of films. Findings revealed that functional properties (aqueous solubility, swelling index, and moisture barrier properties) significantly (p < 0.05) improved as CA content increased. Composite films with CA–starch/gelatin of the ratio (4:1) revealed excellent functional properties. FTIR spectra illustrated strong interaction between the starch chains in the starch films. SEM analysis showed that gelatin exhibited good compatibility in the composite films. Therefore obtained composite films possessed a homogenious, dense and compact networks. In conclusion, CA and gelatin made better starch film properties and broadened the potential applications in the food packaging.


Potato starch Gelatin Citric acid Film property Composite film 



R. Kumar is thankful to UGC, New Delhi for RGN fellowship. Authors are thankful to DST PURSE II and TEQIP-II for financial support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Acosta S, Jiménez A, Cháfer M, González-Martínez C, Chiralt A (2015) Physical properties and stability of starch–gelatin based films as affected by the addition of esters of fatty acids. Food Hydrocoll 49:135–143. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Hassan AA, Norziah MH (2012) Starch–gelatin edible films: water vapor permeability and mechanical properties as affected by plasticizers. Food Hydrocoll 26:108–117. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Azeredo HMC, Waldron KW (2016) Crosslinking in polysaccharide and protein films and coatings for food contact—a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 52:109–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Azeredo HMC, Morrugares-Carmona R, Wellner N, Cross K, Bajka B, Waldron KW (2016) Development of pectin films with pomegranate juice and citric acid. Food Chem 198:101–106. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Byun H, Yoon S (2013) Crosslinked potato starch-based blend films using ascorbic acid as a plasticizer. J Agric Food Chem 62:1755–1762. Google Scholar
  6. Cao N, Fu Y, He J (2007) Mechanical properties of gelatin films cross-linked, respectively, by ferulic acid and tannin acid. Food Hydrocoll 21:575–584. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Caz P (2017) Polysaccharide-based films and coatings for food packaging: a review. Food Hydrocoll 68:136–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Colivet J, Carvalho RA (2017) Hydrophilicity and physicochemical properties of chemically modified cassava starch films. Ind Crops Prod 95:599–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fai AEC, de Souza MRA, de Barros ST, Bruno NV, Ferreira MSL, de Andrade Gonçalves ECB (2016) Development and evaluation of biodegradable films and coatings obtained from fruit and vegetable residues applied to fresh-cut carrot (Daucus carota L.). Postharvest Biol Technol 112:194–204. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fakhouria FM, Martellia SM, Caonc T, Velascod JI, Mei LHI (2015) Edible films and coatings based on starch/gelatin: film properties and effect of coatings on quality of refrigerated Red Crimson grapes. Postharvest Biol Technol 109:57–64. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fakhoury FM, Martelli SM, Bertan LC, Yamashita F, Mei LHI, Queiroz FPC (2012) Edible films made from blends of manioc starch and gelatin—influence of different types of plasticizer and different levels of macromolecules on their properties. LWT Food Sci Technol 49:149–154. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Farhan A, Mohd N (2017) Characterization of edible packaging films based on semi-refined kappa-carrageenan plasticized with glycerol and sorbitol. Food Hydrocoll 64:48–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Garavand F, Rouhi M, Hadi S, Cacciotti I (2017) Improving the integrity of natural biopolymer films used in food packaging by crosslinking approach: a review. Int J Biol Macromol 104:687–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Inge UMRI (2007) Antimicrobial paper based on a soy protein isolate or modified starch coating including carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde. J Agric Food Chem 55:2155–2162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kapelko-Żeberska M, Zięba T, Pietrzak W, Gryszkin A (2016) Effect of citric acid esterification conditions on the properties of the obtained resistant starch. Int J Food Sci Technol 51:1647–1654. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kim JY, Lee Y, Chang YH (2017) Structure and digestibility properties of resistant rice starch cross-linked with citric acid. Int J Food Prop 2:2166–2177. Google Scholar
  17. Kuniak L, Marchessault RH (1972) Study of the crosslinking reaction between epichlorohydrin and starch. Starch-Stärke 24:110–116. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ma W, Rokayya S, Xu L, Sui X, Jiang L, Li Y (2018) Physical–chemical properties of edible film made from soybean residue and citric acid. J Chem. Google Scholar
  19. Mali S, Sakanaka LS, Yamashita F, Grossmann MVE (2005) Water sorption and mechanical properties of cassava starch films and their relation to plasticizing effect. Carbohydr Polym 60:283–289. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Menzela C, Olssonb E, Plivelicc TS, Anderssona R, Johanssonb C, Kuktaited R, Järnströmb L, Koch K (2013) Molecular structure of citric acid cross-linked starch films. Carbohydr Polym 96:270–276. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mirele N, Fakhouri FM, Fialho RLL, de Magalhaes Christine, Cabral Albuquerque E (2018) Starch–recycled gelatin composite films produced by extrusion: physical and mechanical properties. J Appl Polym Sci 46254:1–9. Google Scholar
  22. Oleyaei SA, Almasi H, Ghanbarzadeh B, Moayedi AA (2016) Synergistic reinforcing effect of TiO2 and montmorillonite on potato starch nanocomposite films: thermal, mechanical and barrier properties. Carbohydr Polym 152:253–262. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Otoni CG, Avena-Bustillos RJ, Azeredo HMC, Lorevice MV, Moura MR, Mattoso LHC, Tara H, McHugh TH (2017) Recent advances on edible films based on fruits and vegetables—a review. Compr Rev Food Sci F 16:1151–1169. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Podshivalov A, Zakharova M, Glazacheva E, Uspenskaya M (2017) Gelatin/potato starch edible biocomposite films: correlation between morphology and physical properties. Carbohydr Polym 157:1162–1172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Reddy N, Yang Y (2010) Citric acid cross-linking of starch films. Food Chem 118:702–711. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Seligra PG, Medina Jaramillo C, Fama L, Goyanes S (2016) Biodegradable and non-retrogradable eco-films based on starch–glycerol with citric acid as crosslinking agent. Carbohydr Polym 138:66–74. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sharma L, Sharma HK, Saini CS (2017) Edible films developed from carboxylic acid cross-linked sesame protein isolate: barrier, mechanical, thermal, crystalline and morphological properties. J Food Sci Technol 55:532–539. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Singh N, Belton PS, Georget DMR (2009) The effects of iodine on kidney bean starch: films and pasting properties. Int J Biol Macromol 45:116–119. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sun S, Liu P, Ji N, Hou H, Dong H (2017) Effects of various cross-linking agents on the physicochemical properties of starch/PHA composite films produced by extrusion blowing. Food Hydrocoll 77:964–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Surendra Babu A, Parimalavalli R, Rudra SG (2015) Effect of citric acid concentration and hydrolysis time on physicochemical properties of sweet potato starches. Int J Biol Macromol 80:557–565. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tan B, Thomas NL (2017) Tortuosity model to predict the combined effects of crystallinity and nano-sized clay mineral on the water vapour barrier properties of polylactic acid. Appl Clay Sci 141:46–54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tao F, Shi C, Cui Y (2018) Preparation and physicochemistry properties of smart edible films based on gelatin–starch nanoparticles. J Sci Food Agric 98:5470–5478. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang S, Ren J, Li W, Suna R, Liua S (2014) Properties of polyvinyl alcohol/xylan composite films with citric acid. Carbohydr Polym 103:94–99. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang L, Liu X, Wang J (2017a) Structural properties of chemically modified Chinese yam starches and their films. Int J Food Prop 20:1239–1250. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang W, Wang K, Xiao J, Liua Y, Zhaoa Y, Liu A (2017b) Performance of high amylose starch-composited gelatin films influenced by gelatinization and concentration. Int J Biol Macromol 94:258–265. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xu H, Canisag H, Mu B, Yang Y (2015) Robust and flexible films from 100% starch cross-linked by biobased disaccharide derivative. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 3:2631–2639. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yin Y, Li J, Liu Y, Li Z (2005) Starch crosslinked with poly (vinyl alcohol) by boric acid. Appl Polym Sci 96:1394–1397. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dr. S. S. Bhatnagar University Institute of Chemical Engineering & TechnologyPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Research Planning and Business DevelopmentCSIR-NIISTPappanamcode, TrivandrumIndia

Personalised recommendations