Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 56, Issue 4, pp 1829–1840 | Cite as

Development of electrochemical biosensor based on CNT–Fe3O4 nanocomposite to determine formaldehyde adulteration in orange juice

  • Monika Kundu
  • Hema Bhardwaj
  • Manoj Kumar Pandey
  • Prameela Krishnan
  • R. K. Kotnala
  • Gajjala SumanaEmail author
Original Article


An electrochemical biosensor was developed to determine formaldehyde (HCHO) adulteration commonly found in food. The current responses of various electrodes based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and synthesized nanocomposite (CNT–Fe3O4) were measured using cyclic voltammetry. The nanocomposite based biosensor shows comparatively high sensitivity (527 µA mg/L−1 cm−2), low detection limit (0.05 mg/L) in linear detection range 0.05–0.5 mg/L for formaldehyde detection using formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) enzyme. In real sample analysis, the low obtained RSD values (less than 1.79) and good recovery rates (more than 90%) signify an efficient and precise sensor for the selective quantification of formaldehyde in orange juice. The developed biosensor has future implications for determining formaldehyde adulteration in citrus fruit juices and other liquid foods in agri-food chain to further resolve global food safety concerns, control unethical business practices of adulteration and reduce the widespread food borne illness outbreaks.


Iron oxide Multiwalled carbon nanotubes Nanocomposite Orange juice Formaldehyde 



We sincerely express gratitude to Director, CSIR-NPL, New Delhi, India for providing the research facilities and encouragement. We are grateful to Mr. Jai Singh and Mr. Dinesh CSIR-NPL for SEM and TEM measurements respectively. The sponsorship support received from ICAR-IARI, New Delhi, India is gratefully acknowledged.

Supplementary material

13197_2019_3635_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.8 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1850 kb)


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Agricultural PhysicsICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.CSIR-National Physical LaboratoryNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.AcSIR-CSIR-National Physical LaboratoryNew DelhiIndia

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