Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 56, Issue 4, pp 1696–1707 | Cite as

Rheological evaluations and molecular marker analysis of cultivated bread wheat varieties of India

  • Anjali Rai
  • Anju-Mahendru SinghEmail author
  • Deepak Ganjewala
  • Rajeev Ranjan Kumar
  • Arvind Kumar Ahlawat
  • Sumit Kumar Singh
  • Poornima Sharma
  • Neelu Jain
Original Article


The aim of this study was to screen Indian cultivated wheat varieties and list out the parameters/genes required to be improved for an end-product. Therefore, 30 Indian wheat varieties under cultivation by farmers were screened for 14 physico-chemical and rheological parameters, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), DNA based molecular markers for low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) and puroindolines (Pin) genes. Based on grain texture, sedimentation value, farinographic, alveographic, HMW-GS and LMW-GS and biscuit making parameters, HS490 was found to be a highly suited for biscuit and soft wheat products. HI1563 and DBW14 were also found to possess characteristics such as low protein, low to medium SDS-sedimentation value and combination of 2*, 7+8 and 2+12 (HMW-GS). DBW14 also had LMW alleles desirable for biscuit quality. DBW14 needs to be improved for grain softness to make it suitable for biscuit quality while both grain softness and LMW alleles need to be improved for HI1563 to improve its biscuit spread factor and alveographic indices for extensible gluten. Rest varieties showed moderate to very strong gluten but the gluten lacked extensibility. Only four varieties K307, DBW39, NI5439 and DBW17 possessed high flour protein and moderately strong gluten. They had more balanced deformation energy (W) and configuration ratio (P/L) combination suggestive of strong and extensible gluten needed for raised bread making. Marker assisted backcross breeding is suggested as solution to produce end-use specific varieties where appropriate alleles at only a few loci need to be incorporated.


Wheat grain quality Gluten Grain texture High molecular weight (HMW) Low molecular weight (LMW) glutenins 



AR acknowledges the senior research fellowship granted to her by the ICAR for carrying out the work as part of her Ph.D. thesis. AMS acknowledges the funding support provided by the ICAR under the Indo-Australian Project on marker assisted wheat breeding.

Supplementary material

13197_2019_3593_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (51 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 51 kb)
13197_2019_3593_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (116 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 116 kb)
13197_2019_3593_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (137 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 136 kb)
13197_2019_3593_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (99 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (PDF 98 kb)
13197_2019_3593_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (40 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (PDF 40 kb)
13197_2019_3593_MOESM6_ESM.pdf (90 kb)
Supplementary material 6 (PDF 89 kb)
13197_2019_3593_MOESM7_ESM.xlsx (13 kb)
Supplementary material 7 (XLSX 12 kb)


  1. AACC International (2000) Approved methods of American Association of Cereal Chemists, 10th edn. AACC International Press, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  2. AbuHammad WA, Elias EM, Manthey FA, Alamri MS, Mergoum M (2012) A comparison of methods for assessing dough and gluten strength of durum wheat and their relationship to pasta cooking quality. Int J Food Sci Technol 47:2561–2573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Appelbee MJ (2007) Quality potential of gluten proteins in hexaploid wheat and related species. Doctoral dissertation.
  4. Axford DWE, McDermott EE, Redman DG (1979) Note on the sodium dodecyl sulfate test of bread making quality: comparison with pelshenke and zeleny tests. Cereal Chem 56:582–584Google Scholar
  5. Barak S, Mudgil D, Singh KB (2013) Effect of composition of gluten proteins and dough rheological properties on the cookie-making quality. Brit Food J 115:564–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beccari JB (1745) De Frumento. In: De Bononiensi Scientariumet Artium, vol 2. Institute atque Academia Commentarii, Bologna, pp 122–127Google Scholar
  7. Békés F, Wrigley CW (2013) Gluten alleles and predicted dough quality for wheat varieties worldwide: a great resource free on the AACC international website. Cereal Foods World 58:325–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cornish GB, Gooden J, Wu M, Chn J, Wrigley CW (2007) Australian wheat varieties released recently. Value Added Wheat CRC (Australia).
  9. Doyle JJ, Doyle JL (1987) A rapid isolation procedure from small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochem Bull 19:11–15Google Scholar
  10. Feiz L (2008) Functional analysis of Puroindoline genes in Wheat (Triticum aestivum). Doctoral dissertation, Montana State University-Bozeman, College of Agriculture.
  11. Feng C, Huanhuan L, Dangqun C (2013) Discovery, distribution and diversity of Puroindoline-D1 genes in bread wheat from five countries (Triticum aestivum L.). BMC Plant Biol 13:125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gabriela MM, Gheorghe V, Nicoleta U, Bianca-Ştefania Z, Ionescu M, Gabriel C, Irina I (2016) Methods for determining the characteristics of flour and dough. In: 5th international conference on thermal equipment, renewable energy and rural development TE-RE-RD, At Golden Sands, pp 349–354.
  13. Giroux MJ, Morris CF (1997) A glycine to serine change in puroindoline b is associated with wheat grain hardness and low level of starch surface friabilin. Theor Appl Genet 95:857–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Greer EN, Stewart BA (1959) The water absorption of wheat flour: relative effects of protein and starch. J Sci Food Agric 10:248–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Horvat D, Jurković Z, Sudar R, Pavlinić D, Šimić G (2002) The relative amounts of HMW glutenin subunits of wheat cultivars in relation to bread-making quality. Cereal Res Commun 30:415–422Google Scholar
  16. Jin H, Zhang Y, Li G, Mu P, Fan Z, Xia X, He Z (2013) Effects of allelic variation of HMW-GS and LMW-GS on mixograph properties and Chinese noodle and steamed bread qualities in a set of Aroona near-isogenic wheat lines. J Cereal Sci 57:146–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kaur A, Shevkani K, Katyal M, Singh N, Ahlawat AK, Singh AM (2016) Physicochemical and rheological properties of starch and flour from different durum wheat varieties and their relationships with noodle quality. J Food Sci Technol 53:2127–2138CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Katyal M, Virdi AS, Kaur A, Singh N, Kaur S, Ahlawat AK, Singh AM (2016) Diversity in quality traits amongst Indian wheat varieties I: flour and protein characteristics. Food Chem 194:337–344CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Katyal M, Singh N, Virdi AS, Kaur A, Chopra N, Ahlawat AK, Singh AM (2017) Extraordinarily soft, medium-hard and hard Indian wheat varieties: composition, protein profile, dough and baking properties. Food Res Int 100:306–317CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Katyal M, Virdi AS, Singh N, Chopra N, Kaur A, Ahlawat AK, Singh AM (2018a) Fractionation and grain hardness effect on protein profiling, pasting and rheological properties of flours from medium-hard and extraordinarily soft wheat varieties. J Food Sci Technol 55:4661–4674CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Katyal M, Virdi AS, Singh N, Kaur A, Rana JC, Kumari J (2018b) Diversity in protein profiling, pasting, empirical and dynamic dough rheological properties of meal from different durum wheat accessions. J Food Sci Technol 55:1256–1269CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Kolster P, van Eeuwijk FA, van Gelder WMJ (1991) Additive and epistatic effects of allelic variation at the high molecular weight glutenin subunit loci in determining the bread-making quality of breeding lines of wheat. Euphytica 55:277–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu L, Ikeda TM, Branlard G, Peña RJ, Rogers WJ, Lerner SE, Appels R (2010) Comparison of low molecular weight glutenin subunits identified by SDS-PAGE, 2-DE, MALDI-TOF-MS and PCR in common wheat. BMC Plant Biol 10:124CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Matthews P, McCaffery D (2011) Winter crop variety sowing guide 2011. Orange, NSW Department of Primary Industries.
  25. Morris CF, Lillemo M, Simeone MC, Giroux MJ, Babb SL, Kidwell KK (2001) Prevalence of puroindoline grain hardness genotypes among historically significant North American spring and winter wheats. Crop Sci 41:218–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Payne PI (1987) Genetics of wheat storage proteins and the effect of allelic variation on bread making quality. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 8:141–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Payne PI, Corfield KG, Holt LM, Blackman JA (1981) Correlations between the inheritance of certain high-molecular weight subunits of glutenin and bread-making quality in progenies of six crosses of bread wheat. J Sci Food Agric 32:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Preston KR, Williams PC (2003) Flour analysis of wheat flours. In: Benjamin C (ed) Encyclopedia of food sciences and nutrition, 2nd edn. Academic Press, Oxford, pp 2543–2550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rasheed A, Xianchun X, Yueming Y, Rudi A, Mahmood T, Zhonghu H (2014) Wheat seed storage proteins: advances in molecular genetics, diversity and breeding applications. J Cereal Sci 60:11–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sarkar S, Singh AM, Chakraborti M, Singh SK, Ahlawat AK, Singh GP (2014) Analysis of genetic diversity among the Indian bread wheat cultivars using microsatellite (SSR) markers. IJGPB 74:4Google Scholar
  31. Sarkar S, Singh AM, Ahlawat AK, Chakraborti M, Singh SK (2015) Genetic diversity of bread wheat genotypes based on high molecular weight glutenin subunit profiling and its relation to bread making quality. J Plant Biochem Biotechnol 24:218–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shewry PR (2009) Wheat. J Exp Bot 60:1537–1553. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Singh N, Kaur A, Katyal M, Bhinder S, Ahlawat AK, Singh AM (2016) Diversity in quality traits amongst Indian wheat varieties II: paste, dough and muffin making properties. Food Chem. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Singh N, Katyal M, Virdi AS, Kaur A, Goyal A, Ahlawat AK, Singh AM (2018) Effect of grain hardness, fractionation and cultivars on protein, pasting and dough rheological properties of different wheat flours. Int J Food Sci Technol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang LH, Zhao XL, He ZH, Ma W, Appels R, Peña RJ, Xia XC (2009) Characterization of low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit Glu-B3 genes and development of STS markers in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet 118:525–539CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Wang LH, Li GY, Pena RJ, Xia XC, He ZH (2010) Development of STS markers and establishment of multiplex PCR for Glu-A3 alleles in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). J Cereal Sci 51:305–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhang W, Gianibelli MC, Rampling LR, Gale KR (2004) Characterisation and marker development for low molecular weight glutenin genes from Glu-A3 alleles of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Theor Appl Genet 108:1409–1419CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anjali Rai
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anju-Mahendru Singh
    • 2
    Email author
  • Deepak Ganjewala
    • 1
  • Rajeev Ranjan Kumar
    • 3
  • Arvind Kumar Ahlawat
    • 2
  • Sumit Kumar Singh
    • 2
  • Poornima Sharma
    • 2
  • Neelu Jain
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology, Amity Institute of BiotechnologyAmity UniversityNoidaIndia
  2. 2.Division of GeneticsICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Division of Forecasting and Agricultural System ModelingICAR-Indian Agricultural Statistics Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations