Rheological evaluations and molecular marker analysis of cultivated bread wheat varieties of India
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The aim of this study was to screen Indian cultivated wheat varieties and list out the parameters/genes required to be improved for an end-product. Therefore, 30 Indian wheat varieties under cultivation by farmers were screened for 14 physico-chemical and rheological parameters, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), DNA based molecular markers for low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) and puroindolines (Pin) genes. Based on grain texture, sedimentation value, farinographic, alveographic, HMW-GS and LMW-GS and biscuit making parameters, HS490 was found to be a highly suited for biscuit and soft wheat products. HI1563 and DBW14 were also found to possess characteristics such as low protein, low to medium SDS-sedimentation value and combination of 2*, 7+8 and 2+12 (HMW-GS). DBW14 also had LMW alleles desirable for biscuit quality. DBW14 needs to be improved for grain softness to make it suitable for biscuit quality while both grain softness and LMW alleles need to be improved for HI1563 to improve its biscuit spread factor and alveographic indices for extensible gluten. Rest varieties showed moderate to very strong gluten but the gluten lacked extensibility. Only four varieties K307, DBW39, NI5439 and DBW17 possessed high flour protein and moderately strong gluten. They had more balanced deformation energy (W) and configuration ratio (P/L) combination suggestive of strong and extensible gluten needed for raised bread making. Marker assisted backcross breeding is suggested as solution to produce end-use specific varieties where appropriate alleles at only a few loci need to be incorporated.
KeywordsWheat grain quality Gluten Grain texture High molecular weight (HMW) Low molecular weight (LMW) glutenins
AR acknowledges the senior research fellowship granted to her by the ICAR for carrying out the work as part of her Ph.D. thesis. AMS acknowledges the funding support provided by the ICAR under the Indo-Australian Project on marker assisted wheat breeding.
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