Impact of partial replacement of rice with other selected cereals on idli batter fermentation and idli characteristics

  • Monika Rani
  • Dhanashree Amane
  • Laxmi AnanthanarayanEmail author
Original Article


Idli is a naturally fermented food, prepared using dehulled black gram dal and parboiled rice. In the first phase of the study, replacement of rice with some underutilized cereals like amaranth and finger millet was carried out at different proportions (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, w/w) followed by sensory evaluation of the prepared idlis. Idlis prepared with 25% (w/w) replacement of rice with finger millet (25F) were more acceptable than idlis prepared with 25% (w/w) replacement of rice with amaranth (25A). In the second phase of the study, 50% replacement of rice was carried out with cereals in combinations (25% each, w/w) such as amaranth + finger millet (AF), amaranth + sorghum (AS), amaranth + pearl millet (AP), finger millet + sorghum (FS), finger millet + pearl millet (FP) and sorghum + pearl millet (SP), of which FS and FP batter variants were accepted by the panellists and taken ahead for further analysis. Control, 25F, FS and FP batter variants were subjected to various biochemical analysis up to 20 h of fermentation. Replacement of rice in these batter variants led to comparable changes with an increase in the levels of microbial counts, amylase, protease and phytase activities, titratable acidity, reducing sugars, soluble proteins and antioxidant activity during fermentation. A greater reduction in trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) was also observed. Idlis prepared with replacement of rice by other cereals (25F, FS and FP) resulted in improved textural values and bulk density as compared to control idlis, though the colour was affected.


Idli Rice Partial replacement Millets 



25% amaranth


25% amaranth + 25% finger millet


25% amaranth + 25% sorghum


25% amaranth + 25% pearl millet


25% finger millet


25% finger millet + 25% sorghum


25% finger millet + 25% pearl millet


25% sorghum + 25% pearl millet



The authors are thankful to Department of Biotechnology, New Delhi, India for providing financial assistance for carrying out the research work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Agrawal R, Rati ER, Vijayendra SVN, Varadaraj MC, Prasad MS, Nand K (2001) Flavour profile of idli batter prepared from defined microbial starter cultures. J Microbiol Biotechnol 16:687–690Google Scholar
  2. Anastasio M, Pepe O, Cirillo T, Palomba S, Blaiotta G, Villani F (2010) Selection and use of phytate-degrading LAB to improve cereal-based products by mineral solubilization during dough fermentation. J Food Sci 75:28–35Google Scholar
  3. Antony U, Chandra TS (1997) Microbial population and biochemical changes in fermenting finger millet (Eleusine coracana). World J Microbiol Biotechnol 13:533–537Google Scholar
  4. Au PM, Fields ML (1981) Nutritive quality of fermented sorghum. J Food Sci 46:652–654Google Scholar
  5. Balasubramanian S, Viswanathan R (2007) Properties of idli batter during its fermentation time. J Food Process Preserv 31:32–40Google Scholar
  6. Blandino A, Al-aseeri ME, Pandiella SS, Cantero D, Webb C (2003) Cereal-based fermented foods and beverages. Food Res Int 36:527–543Google Scholar
  7. Bora P (2014) Anti-nutritional factors in foods and their effects. JAIR 3:285–290Google Scholar
  8. Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248–254Google Scholar
  9. Das A, Raychaudhari U, Chakraborty R (2013) Effect of wheatgrass for enhancing the nutritional, textural, total antioxidant and sensory characeristics of “Idli”—an indian steamed rice cake. J Food Technol 11:67–74Google Scholar
  10. Dhami P, Devi SS (2017) Estimation of in vitro starch sigestibility (IVSD) in the fermented rice and ragi based products. Int J Pure Appl Biosci 51:406–1411Google Scholar
  11. Elkhalifa AEO, Schiffler B, Bernhard R (2004) Effect of fermentation on the starch digestibility, resistant starch and some physicochemical properties of sorghum flour. Mol Nutr Food Res 48:91–94Google Scholar
  12. Gani A, Wani SM, Masoodi FA, Gousia H (2012) Whole-grain cereal bioactive compounds and their health benefits: a review. J Food Process Technol 3:1–10Google Scholar
  13. Hur SJ, Lee SY, Kim YC, Choi I, Kim GB (2014) Effect of fermentation on the antioxidant activity in plant-based foods. Food Chem 160:346–356Google Scholar
  14. Iyer B, Ananthanarayan L (2008) Effect of α -amylase addition on fermentation of idli—a popular south indian cereal—legume-based snack food. LWT Food Sci Technol 41:1053–1059Google Scholar
  15. Khetarpaul N, Chauhan BM (1989) Effect of fermentation on protein, fat, minerals and thiamine content of pearl millet. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 39:169–177Google Scholar
  16. Krauss BG, Carburized CS, Sae M (1993) Microstructure of idli. Food Struct 12:483–488Google Scholar
  17. Krishnamoorthy S, Kunjithapatham S, Manickam L (2013) Traditional indian breakfast (Idli and Dosa) with enhanced nutritional content using millets. Nutr Diet 70:241–246Google Scholar
  18. Lata S, Rastogi S, Kapoor A, Imran M (2013) Optimization of culture conditions for the production of phytase from Aspergillus heteromorphus MTCC 10685. Int J Adv Biotechnol Res 4:224–235Google Scholar
  19. Nazni P, Shalini S (2010a) Physical and nutritional evaluation of idli prepared from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). AJST 2:44–48Google Scholar
  20. Nazni P, Shalini S (2010b) Standardization and quality evaluation of idli prepared from pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum). Int J Curr Res 5:084–087Google Scholar
  21. Neelam Y, Kanchan C, Alka S, Alka G (2013) Evaluation of hypoglycemic properties of kodo millet based food products in healthy subjects. IOSR J Pharm 3:14–20Google Scholar
  22. Porres JM, López-Jurado M, Aranda P, Urbano G (2003) Effect of heat treatment and mineral and vitamin supplementation on the nutritive use of protein and calcium from lentils (Lens culinaris M.) in growing rats. Nutrition 19:451–456Google Scholar
  23. Ragaee S, Abdel-Aal ESM, Noaman M (2006) Antioxidant activity and nutrient composition of selected cereals for food use. Food Chem 98:32–38Google Scholar
  24. Ratnavathi CV, Patil J (2013) Sorghum utilization as food. J Nutr Food Sci 4:1–8Google Scholar
  25. Reddy NR, Pierson MD (1994) Reduction in antinutritional and toxic components in plant foods by fermentation. Food Res Int 27:281–290Google Scholar
  26. Reddy NR, Sathe SK, Pierson MD, Salunkhe DK (1982) Idli, an indian fermented food—a review. J Food Qual 5:89–101Google Scholar
  27. Saleh ASM, Zhang Q, Chen J, Shen Q (2013) Millet grains: nutritional quality, processing, and potential health benefits. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 12:281–295Google Scholar
  28. Senanayake S, Ranaweera KKDS, Bamunuarachchi A, Gunaratne A (2013) Comparative analysis of trypsin inhibitor levels in sweet potato cultivars in Sri Lanka. J Natl Sci Found 42:63–69Google Scholar
  29. Shevkani K, Singh N (2014) Influence of kidney bean, field pea and amaranth protein isolates on the characteristics of starch-based gluten-free muffins. Int J Food Sci Technol 49:2237–2244Google Scholar
  30. Shobana S, Krishnaswamy K, Sudha V, Malleshi NG, Anjana RM, Palaniappan L, Mohan V (2013) Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana L.). A review of its nutritional properties, processing, and plausible health benefits. Adv Food Nutr Res 69:1–39Google Scholar
  31. Shrivastava N, Ananthanarayan L (2014) Use of the backslopping method for accelerated and nutritionally enriched idli fermentation. J Sci Food Agric 95:2081–2087Google Scholar
  32. Singh N, Kaur S, Kaur A, Isono N, Ichihashi Y, Noda T, Rana J (2014) Structural, thermal, and rheological properties of Amaranthus hypochondriacus and Amaranthus caudatus starches. Starke 66:457–467Google Scholar
  33. Songré-Ouattara LT, Mouquet-Rivier C, Icard-Vernière C, Humblot C, Diawara B, Guyot JP (2008) Enzyme activities of lactic acid bacteria from a pearl millet fermented gruel (ben-saalga) of functional interest in nutrition. Int J Food Microbiol 128:395–400Google Scholar
  34. Soni SK (1991) Role of yeast domination batter fermentation in Indian idli batter fermentation. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 7:505–507Google Scholar
  35. Soni SK, Sandhu DK, Vilkhu KS, Kamra N (1986) Microbiological studies on Dosa fermentation. Food Microbiol 3:45–53Google Scholar
  36. Sosulski FW, Minja LA, Christensen DA (1988) Trypsin inhibitors and nutritive value in cereals. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 38:23–34Google Scholar
  37. Sreeramulu D, Reddy CVK, Raghunath M (2009) Antioxidant activity of commonly consumed cereals, millets, pulses and legumes in India. Indian J Biochem Biophys 46:112–115Google Scholar
  38. Tinay AHE, Gadir AMA, Hidai ME (1979) Sorghum fermented kisra bread. I-nutritive value of kisra. J Sci Food Agric 30:859–863Google Scholar
  39. Udupa SL, Prabhakar AR, Tandon S (1989) α-amylase inhibitors in foodstuffs. Food Chem 34:95–101Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food Engineering and Technology DepartmentInstitute of Chemical TechnologyMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations