Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 56, Issue 2, pp 614–623 | Cite as

Photo and thermal stress of linseed oil and stabilization strategies

  • Claudia Spatari
  • Giuseppina Ioele
  • Gaetano Ragno
  • Fedora Grande
  • Michele De LucaEmail author
Original Article


The thermal and light stability of linseed oil has been studied by monitoring the concentrations of fatty acids and lignans, as main nutraceutical components. Linseed oil was subjected to stressing light and temperature conditions, in accordance with the ICH international rules, and monitored by UV–vis spectroscopy and HPLC–DAD. The change of UV spectra along the photodegradation tests, setting the irradiation power at 350 W/m2, confirmed a significant overall sensitivity of linseed oil to light. At the same time, the HPLC determination of the major fatty acids showed a marked variation in their concentration up to a residual concentration of 62.3 and 67.2% for α-linolenic and linoleic acid, respectively, after 18 h. In contrast, thermal tests at 60 °C showed some stability, with a concentration of residual fatty acids in the range 82–95% after 48 h. The examined lignans showed significant stability when exposed to both light and heat. Several photoprotection approaches have been also studied to increase the photostability of linseed oil. A significant increase in the stability of fatty acids has been observed using amber glass containers or ascorbic acid or by combining the two protection factors.


Fatty acids Lignans Linseed oil Photo-thermal degradation Photoprotection 



The authors thank Ministero Istruzione Università Ricerca (MIUR), Italy, for the financial support, Grant 60% 2017.


  1. Arab-Tehrany E, Jacquot M, Gaiani C et al (2012) Beneficial effects and oxidative stability of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Trends Food Sci Technol 25:24–33. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Attoumbré J, Mahamane Laoualy AB, Bienaimé C et al (2011) Investigation of lignan accumulation in developing Linum usitatissimum seeds by immunolocalization and HPLC. Phytochem Lett 4:194–198. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bravi E, Perretti G, Marconi O et al (2011) Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside determination in flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) oil and application to a shelf life study. Food Chem 126:1553–1558. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen B, Mcclements DJ, Decker EA (2011) Minor components in food oils: a critical review of their roles on lipid oxidation chemistry in bulk oils and emulsions. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 51:901–916. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cort WM (1974) Antioxidant activity of tocopherols, ascorbyl palmitate, and ascorbic acid and their mode of action. J Am Oil Chem Soc 51:321–325. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. de Goede J, Geleijnse JM, Boer JMA et al (2010) Marine (n-3) fatty acids, fish consumption, and the 10-year risk of fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease in a large population of Dutch adults with low fish intake. J Nutr 140:1023–1028. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Luca M, Tauler R, Ioele G, Ragno G (2013) Study on photodegradation kinetics of melatonin by multivariate curve resolution (MCR) with estimation of feasible band boundaries. Drug Test Anal 5:96–102. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. De Luca M, Restuccia D, Clodoveo ML et al (2016) Chemometric analysis for discrimination of extra virgin olive oils from whole and stoned olive pastes. Food Chem 202:432–437. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Destaillats F (2011) Formulating functional foods with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: challenges and opportunities. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 113:1293–1295. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dinç E, Ragno G, Baleanu D et al (2012) Fractional wavelet transform–continous wavelet transform for the quantification of melatonin and its photodegradation product. Spectr Lett 45:337–343. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dixon RA (2004) Phytoestrogens. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:225–261. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Endo J, Arita M (2016) Cardioprotective mechanism of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Cardiol 67:22–27. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Frankel EN (1996) Antioxidants in lipid foods and their impact on food quality. Food Chem 57:51–55. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gargouri B, Zribi A, Bouaziz M (2015) Effect of containers on the quality of Chemlali olive oil during storage. J Food Sci Technol 52:1948–1959. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gerstenmeyer E, Reimer S, Berghofer E et al (2013) Effect of thermal heating on some lignans in flax seeds, sesame seeds and rye. Food Chem 138:1847–1855. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gonçalves RP, Março PH, Valderrama P (2014) Thermal edible oil evaluation by UV–Vis spectroscopy and chemometrics. Food Chem 163:83–86. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guarrasi V, Mangione MR, Sanfratello V et al (2010) Quantification of underivatized fatty acids from vegetable oils by HPLC with UV detection. J Chromatogr Sci 48:663–668. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Guillén MD, Cabo N (2002) Fourier transform infrared spectra data versus peroxide and anisidine values to determine oxidative stability of edible oils. Food Chem 77:503–510. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Herchi W, Arráez-Román D, Trabelsi H et al (2014) Phenolic compounds in flaxseed: a review of their properties and analytical methods. An overview of the last decade. J Oleo Sci 63:7–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hirri A, De Luca M, Ioele G et al (2015) Chemometric classification of citrus juices of moroccan cultivars by infrared spectroscopy. Czech J Food Sci 33:137–142. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Huang J, Wang Q, Li T et al (2018) Multilayer emulsions as a strategy for linseed oil and α-lipoic acid micro-encapsulation: study on preparation and in vitro characterization. J Sci Food Agric 98:3513–3523. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. ICH (1996) Q1B guideline photostability testing of new drug substances and products comments for its applicationGoogle Scholar
  23. Ioele G, Oliverio F, Andreu I et al (2010) Different photodegradation behavior of barnidipine under natural and forced irradiation. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 215:205–213. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ioele G, De Luca M, Ragno G (2014) Photostability of barnidipine in combined cyclodextrin-in-liposome matrices. Future Med Chem 6:35–43. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kapoulas VM, Andrikopoulos NK (1987) Detection of virgin olive oil adulteration with refined oils by second-derivative spectrophotometry. Food Chem 23:183–192. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lehnert S, Dubinina A, Deynichenko G et al (2018) The study of influence of natural antioxidants on quality of peanut and linseed oil blends during their storage. East-Eur J Enterp Technol 3:44–50. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Michotte D, Rogez H, Chirinos R et al (2011) Linseed oil stabilisation with pure natural phenolic compounds. Food Chem 129:1228–1231. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Milder IE, Arts IC, van de Putte B et al (2005) Lignan contents of Dutch plant foods: a database including lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol. Br J Nutr 93:393–402. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Montedoro G, Servili M, Baldioli M, Miniati E (1992) Simple and hydrolyzable phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil. 1. Their extraction, separation, and quantitative and semiquantitative evaluation by HPLC. J Agric Food Chem 40:1571–1576. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nielsen NS (2015) Marine lipids (omega-3 oil): stability of oil and enriched products during production and storage. Curr Nutr Food Sci 11:188–198. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nykter M, Kymäläinen H-R, Gates F, Sjöberg AM (2006) Quality characteristics of edible linseed oil. Agric Food Sci 15:402–413. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. O’Connell TD, Block RC, Huang SP, Shearer GC (2017) ω3-Polyunsaturated fatty acids for heart failure: effects of dose on efficacy and novel signaling through free fatty acid receptor 4. J Mol Cell Cardiol 103:74–92. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ragno G, Ioele G, De Luca M et al (2006a) A critical study on the application of the zero-crossing derivative spectrophotometry to the photodegradation monitoring of lacidipine. J Pharm Biom Anal 42:39–45. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ragno G, Risoli A, Loele G et al (2006b) Photostabilization of 1,4-dihydropyridine antihypertensives by incorporation into β-cyclodextrin and liposomes. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 6:9–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rampazzo V, Ribeiro LF, Santos PM et al (2018) Multi-block analysis coupled with GC-FID and ATR-MIR for the evaluation of thermal degradation in vegetable oils. J Chromatogr B Anal Technol Biomed Life Sci 1081:118–125. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rodríguez Y, Christophe AB (2005) Long-chain ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in erythrocyte phospholipids are associated with insulin resistance in non-obese type 2 diabetics. Clin Chim Acta 354:195–199. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shin H, Kim SH, Le CY, Nam SY (2003) Inhibitory effects of long-chain fatty acids on VFA degradation and beta-oxidation. Water Sci Technol 47:139–146Google Scholar
  38. Spatari C, De Luca M, Ioele G, Ragno G (2017) A critical evaluation of the analytical techniques in the photodegradation monitoring of edible oils. LWT—Food Sci Technol 76:147–155. Google Scholar
  39. Symoniuk E, Ratusz K, Krygier K (2017) Oxidative stability and the chemical composition of market cold-pressed linseed oil. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 119:700055. Google Scholar
  40. Tańska M, Mikołajczak N, Konopka I (2018) Comparison of the effect of sinapic and ferulic acids derivatives (4-vinylsyringol vs. 4-vinylguaiacol) as antioxidants of rapeseed, flaxseed, and extra virgin olive oils. Food Chem 240:679–685. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Terouzi W, De Luca M, Bolli A et al (2011) A discriminant method for classification of Moroccan olive varieties by using direct FT-IR analysis of the mesocarp section. Vib Spectrosc 56:123–128. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Touré A, Xueming X (2010) Flaxseed lignans: source, biosynthesis, metabolism, antioxidant activity, Bio-active components, and health benefits. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 9:261–269. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Uluata S, McClements J, Decker EA (2015) Physical stability, autoxidation, and photosensitized oxidation of ω-3 Oils in nanoemulsions prepared with natural and synthetic surfactants. J Agric Food Chem 63:9333–9340. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Westcott ND, Muir AD (2003) Flax seed lignan in disease prevention and health promotion. Phytochem Rev 2:401–417. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wijesundera C, Kitessa S, Abeywardena M et al (2011) Long-chain omega-3 oils: current and future supplies, food and feed applications, and stability. Lipid Technol 23:55–58. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zeb A, Murkovic M (2013) Determination of thermal oxidation and oxidation products of β-carotene in corn oil triacylglycerols. Food Res Int 50:534–544. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional SciencesUniversity of CalabriaRendeItaly

Personalised recommendations