Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 56, Issue 1, pp 462–472 | Cite as

Disparate dynamic viscoelastic responses of wheat flour doughs coated with different oils for preventing water evaporation during time sweeps and their mechanisms decoupled

  • Xuewei Zhao
  • Wangming Li
  • Hua ZhangEmail author
  • Xingli Liu
  • Zhongyi Zhang
Original Article


Various non-volatile oils are currently applied in order to prevent water evaporation from exposed surface of dough during oscillatory measurements. A systemic understanding of their effectiveness in controlling water loss and ensuring accuracy of rheological measurements is necessary. In this work, three kinds of coating oils (vaseline, dimethyl silicone oil and low viscosity silicone oil) were selected to minimize water evaporation from dough of 37%, 42% and 47% water content subjected to time sweep tests under oscillatory mode. Evolution patterns of the storage modulus, loss modulus and loss factor with time were followed, and the mechanisms responsible for the response patterns were decoupled. Disparate dynamic viscoelastic responses were found for the same dough coated with different oils. Spontaneous de-structuring of dough combined with thixotropic effect contributed to the decrease of dynamic modulus and increase of the loss factor with time. Dynamic vapor sorption tests showed that water evaporation did occur for the dough even coated with non-volatile oils including vaseline. Water evaporation led to an accelerated increase in dynamic modulus with time, while had a very limited impact on loss factor. Oil invasion only played a minor role in the decrease in dynamic modulus. The measured modulus was actually a sum of the positive and negative contributions. Vaseline was observed as an effective coating oil for rheological measurements of dough, especially with high water content.


Dough Linear viscoelasticity Water evaporation Coating oil Mass transfer 



We would like to acknowledge the financial support from Henan Basic and Advanced Technology Research Program (162300410255); Henan Transformation Project of Production, School and Research Achievements (2107000023); and Zhengzhou Science and Technology Major Project (174PZDZX576).


  1. Baltsavias A, Jurgens A, van Vliet T (1997) Rheological properties of short doughs at amall deformation. J Cereal Sci 26:289–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berland S, Launay B (1995) Shear softening and thixotropic properties of wheat flour doughs in dynamic testing at high shear strain. Rheol Acta 34:622–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Correa MJ, Salinas MV, Carbas B, Ferrero C, Brites C, Puppo MC (2017) Technological quality of dough and breads from commercial algarroba–wheat flour blends. J Food Sci Technol 54(7):2104–2114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Crank J (1975) The mathematics of diffusion, 2nd edn. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  5. Davidou S, Michon C, Thabet IB, Launay B (2008) Influence of shaping and orientation of structures on rheological properties of wheat flour dough measured in dynamic shear and biaxial extension. Cereal Chem 85(3):403–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Duvarci OC, Yazar G, Kokini JL (2017) The comparison of LAOS behavior of structured food materials (suspensions, emulsions and elastic networks). Trends Food Sci Technol 60:2–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Edwards NM, Dexter JE, Scanlon MG, Cenkowski S (1999) Relationship of creep-recovery and dynamic oscillatory measurements to durum wheat physical dough properties. Cereal Chem 76(5):638–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gabriele D, de Cindio B, D’Antona P (2001) A weak gel model for foods. Rheol Acta 40(2):120–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hardt NA, Boom RM, van der Goot AJ (2014) Wheat dough rheology at low water contents and the influence of xylanases. Food Res Int 66:478–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hilder MH, van den Tempel M (1971) Diffusivity of water in groundnut oil and paraffin oil. J Appl Chem Biotechnol 21:176–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Joubert C, Cassagnau P, Choplin L, Michel A (2001) Diffusion of plasticizer in elastomer probed by rheological analysis. J Rheol 46(3):629–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Karathanos VT, Kostaropoulos AE (1995) Diffusion and equilibrium of water in dough/raisin mixtures. J Food Eng 25:113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Katyal M, Virdi AS, Singh N, Kaur A, Rana JC, Kumari J (2018) Diversity in protein profiling, pasting, empirical and dynamic dough rheological properties of meal from different durum wheat accessions. J Food Sci Technol 55(4):1256–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Khatkar BS, Schofield JD (2002) Dynamic rheology of wheat flour dough. I. Non-linear viscoelastic behaviour. J Sci Food Agric 82:827–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kim Y-R, Cornillon P, Campanella OH, Stroshine RL, Lee S, Shim J-Y (2008) Small and large deformation rheology for hard wheat flour dough as influenced by mixing and resting. J Food Sci 73(1):E1–E8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lind I, Rask C (1991) Sorption isotherms of mixed minced meat, dough, and bread crust. J Food Eng 14:303–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liotier P-J, Place S, Chalamet Y, Majeste J-C (2010) New rheological method to measure diffusion coefficient of volatile liquids: application to butylmethacrylate in molten polyethylene matrix. J Appl Polym Sci 118:759–763Google Scholar
  18. Lopes-Da-Solva JA, Santos DMJ, Freitas A, Brites C, Gil AM (2007) Rheological and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study of the hydration and heating of undeveloped wheat doughs. J Agric Food Chem 55:5636–5644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mao B, Divoux T, Snabre P (2016) Normal force controlled rheology applied to agar gelation. J Rheol 66(3):473–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Masi P, Cavella S, Sepe M (1998) Characterization of dynamic viscoelastic behavior of wheat flour doughs at different moisture contents. Cereal Chem 75(4):428–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Meerts M, Cardinaels R, Oosterlinck F, Courtin CM, Moldenaers P (2017) The impact of water content and mixing time on the linear and non-linear rheology of wheat flour dough. Food Biophys 12:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Moreira R, Chenlo F, Arufe S, Rubinos SN (2015) Physicochemical characterization of white, yellow and purple maize flours and rheological characterization of their doughs. J Food Sci Technol 52(12):7954–7963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Olsson E, Hedenqvist MS, Johansson C, Jarnstrom L (2013) Influence of citric acid and curing on moisture sorption, diffusion and permeability of starch films. Carbohydr Polym 94:765–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sato J, Breedveld V (2005) Evaporation blocker for cone-plate rheometry of volatile samples. Appl Rheol 15:390–397Google Scholar
  25. Schiedt B, Baumann A, Conde-Petit B, Vilgisi TA (2013) Short- and long-range interactions governing the viscoelastic properties during wheat dough and model dough development. J Text Stud 44:317–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Singh S, Singh N (2013) Relationship of polymeric proteins and empirical dough rheology with dynamic rheology of dough and gluten from different wheat varieties. Food Hydrocol 33:342–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Singh S, Singh N, MacRitchie F (2011) Relationship of polymeric proteins with pasting, gel dynamic- and dough. Food Hydrocol 25:19–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Smith JR, Smith TL, Tschoegl NW (1970) Rheological properties of wheat flour doughs III: dynamic shear modulus and its dependence on amplitude, frequency, and dough composition. Rheol Acta 9(2):239–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sofou S, Muliawan EB, Hatzikiriakos SG, Mitsoulis E (2008) Rheological characterization and constitutive modeling of bread dough. Rheol Acta 47(4):369–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Szczesniak AS, Loh J, Wesley R (1983) Effect of moisture transfer on dynamic viscoelastic parameters of wheat flour/water systems. J Rheol 27(6):537–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tietze S, Jekle M, Becker T (2017) Development of wheat dough by means of shearing. J Food Eng 201:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. van Bockstaele F, de Leyn I, Eeckhout M, Dewettinckb K (2008) Rheological properties of wheat flour dough and their relationship with bread volume. II. Dynamic oscillation measurements. Cereal Chem 85(6):762–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Watanabe A, Larsson H, Eliasson A-C (2002) Effect of physical state of nonpolar lipids on rheology and microstructure of gluten-starch and wheat flour doughs. Cereal Chem 79(2):203–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wilke CR, Chang P (1955) Correlation of diffusion coefficients in dilute solutions. AIChE J 1:264–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zieverink M, de Rijke E, de Kruijf K, de Kok P (2009) Diffusivity and solubility of water in palm oil. In: 7th Euro Fed Lipid Congress, Poster (PHYS-004) Graz, AustriaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xuewei Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Wangming Li
    • 1
  • Hua Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Xingli Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zhongyi Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Food and BioengineeringZhengzhou University of Light IndustryZhengzhouChina
  2. 2.Collaborative Innovation Center for Food Production and SafetyZhengzhouChina
  3. 3.Henan Key Laboratory of Cold Chain Food Quality and Safety ControlZhengzhouChina

Personalised recommendations