Valorisation of black carrot pomace: microwave assisted extraction of bioactive phytoceuticals and antioxidant activity using Box–Behnken design
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The present study compares three methods viz. microwave assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional solvent extraction (CSE) for extraction of phenolic compounds from black carrot pomace (BCP). BCP is the major by-product generated during processing and poses big disposal problem. Box–Behnken design using response surface methodology was employed to investigate and optimize the MAE of phenolics, antioxidant activity and colour density from BCP. The conditions for maximum recovery of polyphenolics were: microwave power (348.07 W), extraction time (9.8 min), solvent–solid ratio (19.3 mL/g) and ethanol concentration (19.8%). Under these conditions, the extract contained total phenolic content of 264.9 ± 10.02 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 mL, antioxidant capacity (AOC) of 13.14 ± 1.05 µmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/mL and colour density of 68.63 ± 5.40 units. The total anthocyanin content at optimized condition was 753.40 ± 31.6 mg/L with low % polymeric colour of 7.40 ± 0.42. At optimized conditions, MAE yielded higher colour density (68.63 ± 5.40), polyphenolic content (264.9 ± 10.025 mg GAE/100 mL) and AOC (13.14 ± 1.05 µmol TE/mL) in a short time as compared to UAE and CSE. Overall results clearly indicate that MAE is the best suited method for extraction in comparison to UAE and CSE. The phenolic rich extract can be used as an effective functional ingredient in foods.
KeywordsAntioxidant capacity Black carrot pomace Colour density Response surface methodology Total phenolic content
The facilities and financial support provided by the ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), Government of India and Prathista Industries Limited under Prime Minister Fellowship Scheme to undertake the research work are highly acknowledged.
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