Dynamic rheological properties of corn starch-date syrup gels

  • A. A. MohamedEmail author
  • S. Hussain
  • M. S. Alamri
  • Akram A. Abdo Qasem
  • M. A. Ibraheem
  • M. I. Alhazmi
Original Article


The rheological, pasting, and gel textural properties of corn starch blended with date syrup (DS) or sugar (SG) were studied. The average amylose content of the starch was 27.8%. Corn starch gel is considered elastic since the elastic modulus (G′) was much greater than the viscous modulus (G″). Different effect between DS and SG on corn starch gel was observed, where SG addition and DS replacement experiments exhibited the highest G′. The tan δ of all samples was in the range of 0.02–0.20 indicating elastic behavior since it is less than unity. The hardness of starch gel ranged from 13 to 146 g and 212-145 for DS replacement and DS addition, respectively. Unlike the replacement experiment, the addition experiment exhibited significant increase in peak viscosity, setback and pasting temperature (p > 0.05). The magnitude of the effect of DS on corn starch gel was more evident compared to SG. This was apparent by looking at the slopes of the linear regression of the log of G′ or G″ versus the log of frequency. Based on the information provided here, date syrup application can expand to cover the baking and beverage industries.


Date syrup Corn starch Pasting Rheology Texture 



The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through research Group No RGP-114.


  1. Abdulmola NA, Richardson RK, Morris ER (2000) Effect of oxidized starch on calcium pectinate gels. Food Hydrocoll 14:569–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad FB, Williams PA (1999) Effect of sugars on the thermal and rheological properties of sago starch. Biopolymers 50:401–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed J, Ramaswamy HS (2006) Physico-chemical properties of commercial date pastes (Phoenix dactylifera). J Food Eng 76:348–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alamri MS, Mohamed AA, Hussain S, Almania HA (2013) Legume starches and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) gum blends: pasting, thermal, and viscous properties. Food Sci Technol Res 19:381–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alloncle M, Lefebvre J, Llamas G, Doublier J (1989) A rheological characterization of cereal starch—galactomannan mixtures. Cereal Chem 66:90–93Google Scholar
  6. AOAC (1990) Official methods (16.12) of analysis of AOAC international. 16th edn, Edited by Association of Official Analytical Chemists, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  7. Baek MH, Yoo B, Lim ST (2004) Effects of sugars and sugar alcohols on thermal transition and cold stability of corn starch gel. Food Hydrocoll 18:133–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bansil R (1993) Phase separation in polymer solutions and gels. J de Phys 3:225–235Google Scholar
  9. Biliaderis CG (1998) Structures and phase transitions of starch polymers. In: Walker RH (ed) Polysaccharide association structures in food. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, pp 57–168Google Scholar
  10. Chang YH, Lim ST, Yoo B (2014) Dynamic rheology of corn starch–sugar composites. J Food Eng 64:521–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen Z, Schols HA, Voragen AGJ (2003) Physicochemical properties of starches obtained from three varieties of Chinese sweet potatoes. J Food Sci 68:431–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chiotelli E, Role’e A, Le Meste M (2000) Effect of sucrose on the thermo-mechanical behavior of concentrated wheat and waxy corn starch–water preparations. J Agric Food Chem 48:1327–1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Choi HM, Yoo B (2009) Steady and dynamic shear rheology of sweet potato starch–xanthan gum mixtures. Food Chem 116:638–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. D’Appolonia BL (1972) Effect of bread ingredients on starch gelatinization properties as measured by the amylograph. Cereal Chem 49:532–543Google Scholar
  15. Dickinson E, McClements DJ (1996) Advances in food colloids. Blackie/Chapman & Hall, Glasgow, pp 81–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dong WC, Yoon HC (2012) Steady and dynamic rheological properties of buckwheat starch-galactomannan mixtures. Prev Nutr Food Sci 17:192–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Doublier JL, Llamas G, Le Meur M (1987) A rheological investigation of cereal starch pastes and gels. Effects of pasting procedures. Carbohydr Polym 7:251–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eliasson A (1992) Calorimetric investigation of the effect of sucrose on starch gelatinization. Carbohydr Polym 18:131–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Evageliou V, Richardson RK, Morris ER (2000) Effect of sucrose, glucose, and fructose on gelation of oxidised starch. Carbohydr Polym 42:261–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gunaratne A, Ranaweera S, Corke H (2007) Thermal, pasting, and gelling properties of heat and potato starches in the presence of sucrose, glucose, glycerol, and hydroxypropyl b-cyclodextrin. Carbohydr Polym 70:112–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hoover R, Senanayake N (1996) Effect of sugars on the thermal and retrogradation properties of oat starches. J Food Biochem 20:65–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jangchud K, Phimolsiripol Y, Haruthaithanasan V (2003) Physicochemical properties of sweet potato flour and starch as affected by blanching and processing. Starch/Starke 55:258–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jung SH, Shin GJ, Choi CU (1991) Comparison of physicochemical properties of corn, sweet potato, potato, wheat and mungbean starches. Korean J Food Sci Technol 23:272–275Google Scholar
  24. Kim CS, Walker CE (1992) Effect of sugars and emulsifiers on starch gelatinization using deferential scanning calorimetry. Cereal Chem 69:212–217Google Scholar
  25. Levine H, Slade L (1988) Non-equilibrium behavior of small carbohydrate water system. Pure Appl Chem 60:1841–1847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Maaruf AG, Che Man YB, Asbi BA, Junainah AH, Kennedy JF (2001) Effect of water content on the gelatinisation temperature of sago starch. Carbohydr Polym 46:331–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Miles MJ, Morris VJ, Orford PD, Ring SG (1985) The roles of amylose and amylopectin in the gelation and retrogradation of starch. Carbohydr Res 135:271–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mohamed IO, Babucurr J (2015) Effect of date syrup on pasting, rheological, and retrogradation properties of corn starch gels. Starch/Stärke 67:709–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Noda T, Tkahata T, Sato T, Kumagai T, Yamakawa O (1998) Starch properties and cell-wall material contents in sweet potatoes as affected by flesh color, cultivation method and year. J Appl Glycosci 45:1–9Google Scholar
  30. Parry PA, Donald AM (2002) The effect of sugars on the gelatinization of starch. Carbohydr Polym 49:155–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pongsawatmanit R, Temsiripong T, Suwonsichon T (2007) Thermal and rheological properties of tapioca starch and xyloglucan mixtures in the presence of sucrose. Food Res Int 40:239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sandhu KS, Singh N (2007) Some properties of corn starches II: physicochemical, gelatinization, retrogradation, pasting and gel textural properties. Food Chem 101:1499–1507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sandhu KS, Kaur M, Singh N, Lim ST (2008) A comparison of native and oxidized normal and waxy corn starches: physicochemical, thermal, morphological and pasting properties. LWT Food Sci Technol 41:1000–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sikora M, Mazurkiewicz J, Tomasik P, Pielichowski K (1999) Rheological properties of some starch–water–sugar systems. Int J Food Sci Technol 34:371–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Singh N, Sandhu KS, Kaur M (2004) Characterization of starches separated from Indian chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cultivars. J Food Eng 63(4):441–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Singh N, Inouchi N, Nishinari K (2006) Structural thermal and viscoelastic characteristics of starches separated from normal, sugary and waxy maize. Food Hydrocoll 20:923–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sopade PA, Halley PJ, Junming LL (2004) Gelatinisation of starch in mixtures of sugars. II. Application of differential scanning calorimetry. Carbohydr Polym 58:311–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tolstoguzov VB (1986) Functional properties of protein–polysaccharide mixtures. In: Mitchell JR, Ledward DL (eds) Functional properties of food macromolecules. Elsevier, London, pp 385–415Google Scholar
  39. Tomasik P, Wang Y, Jane J (1995) Complexes of starch with low molecular saccharides. Starch/Starke 47:185–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tromp RH, Rennie AR, Jones RAL (1995) Kinetics of simultaneous phase separation and gelation in solutions of dextran and gelatin. Macromolecular 28:4129–4138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang B, Wang L-J, Li D, Ozkan N et al (2009) Rheological properties of waxy maize starch and xanthan gum mixtures in the presence of sucrose. Carbohydr Polym 77:472–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Willett JL, Jasberg BK, Swanson CL (1995) Rheology of thermoplastic starch: effects of temperature, moisture content, and additives on melt viscosity. Polym Eng Sci 35:202–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yamin FF, Lee M, Pollak LM, White PJ (1999) Thermal properties of starch in corn variants isolated after chemical mutagenesis of inbred line B73. Cereal Chem 76:175–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhang X, Tong Q, Zhu W, Ren F (2013) Pasting, rheological properties and gelatinization kinetics of tapioca starch with sucrose or glucose. J Food Eng 114:255–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. A. Mohamed
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. Hussain
    • 1
  • M. S. Alamri
    • 1
  • Akram A. Abdo Qasem
    • 1
  • M. A. Ibraheem
    • 1
  • M. I. Alhazmi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and NutritionKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations