Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from ready-to-eat foods of animal origin from tourist destinations of North-western Himalayas, Himachal Pradesh, India
- 5 Downloads
This study was aimed to determine the incidence of Staphylococcus aureus in ready-to-eat (RTE) milk (n = 120) and meat (n = 120) products from various tourist places in north western Himalayas, Himachal Pradesh, India. S. aureus isolates and its enterotoxins; A, B, D and E were characterized by conventional and molecular methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility (AMS) profiles of S. aureus isolates were determined by disk diffusion method using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria. Overall, 6.7% (n = 16/240) food samples were positive for S. aureus. PCR amplification of nucA confirmed all biochemically characterized isolates as S. aureus. Incidence of S. aureus was higher (10.0%) in RTE milk products than meat products (3.3%). S. aureus contamination levels were highest in milk cake/khoa (26.0%, p = 0.0002) followed by ice cream/kulfi (10.0%, p = 0.4), mutton momo (10.0%, p = 0.4), burfi (3.3%, p = 0.7) and chicken momo (3.3%, p = 0.7). None of the isolates carried genes for S. aureus enterotoxins; A, B, D and E. AMS testing revealed seven different resistance patterns and 81.3% multi drug resistance. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin. High resistance levels were observed against methicillin (93.7%), clindamycin (68.8%), erythromycin (56.3%) and vancomycin (43.8%). Vancomycin resistant (n = 7) isolates were also resistant to methicillin. All isolates were susceptible to novobiocin.
KeywordsMethicillin Vancomycin Novobiocin nucA gene Enterotoxin
We are thankful to CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University for financial and infrastructure support for this research. The necessary help and technical support provided by Head, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Dr. GC Negi College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural is duly acknowledged.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
There is no conflict of interests.
- Argudín MA, Tenhagen BA, Fetsch A, Sachsenröder J, Käsbohrer A, Schroeter A, Hammerl JA, Hertwig S, Helmuth R, Bräunig J, Mendoza MC, Appel B, Rodicio MR, Guerra B (2011) Virulence and resistance determinants of German Staphylococcus aureus ST398 isolates from nonhuman sources. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:3052–3060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bhatia A, Zahoor S (2007) Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins: a review. J Clin Diagn Res 1:188–197Google Scholar
- Carfora V, Caprioli A, Marri N, Sagrafoli D, Boselli C, Giacinti G, Giangolini G, Sorbara L, Dottarelli S, Battisti A, Amatiste S (2015) Enterotoxin genes, enterotoxin production, and methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk and dairy products in central Italy. Int Dairy J 42:2–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- CLSI (2013) Performance standards for antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Twenty-Third Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100-S23. Wayne, PA. Clinical and Laboratory Standards InstituteGoogle Scholar
- Mehndiratta PL, Gur R, Saini S, Bhalla P (2010) Staphylococcus aureus phage types and their correlation to antibiotic resistance. Ind J Pathol Microbiol 53:23–45Google Scholar
- Mehrotra M, Wang G, Johnson WM (2000) Multiplex PCR for detection of genes for Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins, exfoliative toxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 and methicillin resistance. J Clin Microbiol 38:1032–1035Google Scholar
- Riley TV, Pearman JW, Rouse IL (1995) Changing epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Western Australia. Med J Aust 163:412–414Google Scholar
- Rohinishree YS, Negi PS (2011) Detection, identification and characterization of staphylococci in street vend foods. Food Nutr Sci 2:304–313Google Scholar
- Sergelidis D, Abrahim A, Anagnostou V, Govaris A, Papadopoulos T, Papa A (2012) Prevalence, distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in ready-to-eat salads and in the environment of a salad manufacturing plant in Northern Greece. Czech J Food Sci 30:285–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sethi S, Dutta A, Gupta BL, Gupta S (2013) Antimicrobial activity of spices against isolated food borne pathogens. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 5:260–262Google Scholar
- Singh P, Prakash A (2010) Prevalence of coagulase positive pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus in milk and milk products collected from unorganized sector of Agra. Acta Argic Slov 96:37–41Google Scholar
- Walsh TJ, Standiford HC, Reboli AC, John JF, Mulligan ME, Ribner BS, Montgomerie JZ, Goetz MB, Mayhall CG, Rimland D (1993) Randomized double-blinded trial of rifampin with either novobiocin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization: prevention of antimicrobial resistance and effect of host factors on outcome. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 37:1334–1342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wilson K (1987) Preparation of genomic DNA from bacteria. In: Ausubel FM, Brent R, Kingston RE et al (eds) Current protocols in molecular biology. Wiley Interscience, Brooklyn, pp 241–245Google Scholar