Advertisement

Anatomical and physical characteristics of some rattan species

  • M. Sharma
  • C. L. Sharma
  • D. Haokip
Original Article
  • 8 Downloads

Abstract

The stem of four rattan species namely Calamus latifolius, C. leptospadix, Daemonorops jenkinsiana and Plectocomia bractealis collected from Manipur was evaluated for its anatomical and physical characteristics. The stem diameter of both Calamus species was more in the top position than the bottom. The epidermis of all the investigated species was single layered with few sunken stomata. The lumina of epidermis was drop, oval, elongated and rectangular in shape. The vascular bundles were Type b in both C. latifolius and C. leptospadix, Type d in D. jenkinsiana and Type a in P. bractealis, whereas the ground tissue was Type A in both Calamus species, Type B in D. jenkinsiana and Type C in P. bractealis. The yellow cap of fibre sclereids in central vascular bundles and tyloses in metaxylem vessels was present in P. bractealis. The number of vascular bundles was maximum in periphery and bottom position of the stem. There was a significant decrease in fibre percentage and increase in parenchyma percentage from bottom to top in all selected rattan species. Quantitatively, all the anatomical characteristics of fibres and vessels varied significantly along the height in all species. Specific gravity decreased from bottom to top in all rattan species except P. bractealis.

Keywords

Lumina shape Ground tissue Mucilage canals Vascular bundles Specific gravity 

References

  1. Bhat KM, Vergheese M (1991) Anatomical basis for density and shrinkage behaviour of rattans. J Inst Wood Sci 12(3):123–130Google Scholar
  2. Bhat KM, Liese W, Schmitt U (1990) Structural variability of vascular bundles and cell wall in rattan stem. Wood Sci Technol 24:211–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhat KM, Mohamed Nasser KM, Thulasidas PK (1993) Anatomy and identification of South Indian rattans (Calamus species). IAWA 14(1):63–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhat PR, Shenoy HSP, Kaveriappa KM (2010) Status of some species of rattans in the forest of the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. Afr J Plant Sci 4(11):455–463Google Scholar
  5. Bin XU, Huangfei LV, Xing’e L (2014) The characteristics of vascular and fibre in Plectocomia himalayana. J Chem Pharm Res 6(6):2801–2804Google Scholar
  6. Dransfield J (1992) The rattans of Sarawak. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Sarawak Forest Department, KuchingGoogle Scholar
  7. Ebanyenle E, Oteng-Amoako AA (2003) Anatomy and identification of five indigenous rattan species of Ghana. Ghana J For 11(2):77–90Google Scholar
  8. Fisher JB, Ewers FW (1995) Vessel dimensions in liana and tree species of Gnetum (Gnetales). Am J Bot 82:1350–1357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Govaerts R, Dransfield J, Zona S, Hodel DR, Henderson A (2014) World checklist of Arecaceae. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
  10. Klotz LH (1978) Observations on diameter of vessels in stems of palms. Principes 22:99–106Google Scholar
  11. Matthew A, Bhat KM (1997) Anatomical diversity of Indian rattan palms (Calamoideae) in relation to biogeography and systematics. Bot J Linn Soc 125(1):71–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Quiroz J, Orellana R, Canto G, Rebollar S, Herrera-Franco P (2008) Stem anatomical characteristics of the climbing palm Desmoncus orthacanthos (Arecaceae) under two natural growth conditions in tropical forest. Rev de Bio Trop 56(2):1–15Google Scholar
  13. Raj H, Yadav S, Bisht NS (2014) Current status, issues and conservation strategies for rattans of North-East India. Trop Plant Res 1(2):01–07Google Scholar
  14. Ravikanth G, Ganeshaiah KN, Uma Shaanker R (2002) Identification of hot spots of species richness and genetic variability of rattans: an approach using geographical information systems (GIS) and molecular tools. Plant Genet Res Newsl 132:17–21Google Scholar
  15. Renuka C, Bhat KM, Nambiar VPK (1987) Morphological, anatomical and physical properties of Calamus species of Kerala forests. KFRI Res Rep 46:1–57Google Scholar
  16. Singh HB, Puni L, Jain A, Singh RS, Rao PG (2004) Status, utility, threats and Conservation options for rattan resources in Manipur. Curr Sci 87(1):90–94Google Scholar
  17. Smith DM (1955) A comparison of two methods for determining the specific gravity of small samples of secondary growth, Douglas fir. US For Prod Lab Rep No. 2033Google Scholar
  18. Uma Shaanker R, Ganeshaiah KN, Srinivasan K, Rao, VR, Hong LT (2004) Bamboo and rattans of the Western Ghats: population biology, socio economics and conservation strategies. ATREE, Bangalore, IPGRI, Malaysia and UAS, BangaloreGoogle Scholar
  19. Weiner G, Liese W (1987) Anatomical features of Rattan. Rattan information Centre Bulletin, Kepong, Malaysia 6(2):6–7Google Scholar
  20. Weiner G, Liese W (1988) Anatomical structures and differences of rattan genera from Southeast Asia. J Trop For Sci 1(2):122–132Google Scholar
  21. Weiner G, Liese W (1993a) Morphological characterization of the epidermis of rattan palms. J Trop For Sci 6(2):197–201Google Scholar
  22. Weiner G, Liese W (1993b) Generic identification key to rattan palms based on stem anatomical characters. IAWA 14(1):55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Wood Science 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forestry, Wood Science and Forest Products LaboratoryNorth Eastern Regional Institute of Science and TechnologyNirjuliIndia

Personalised recommendations