Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 3–23 | Cite as

Prevention and Treatment of Peritoneal Metastases: a Comprehensive Review

  • Paul H. SugarbakerEmail author
Original Article


Peritoneal metastases may occur from a majority of cancers that occur within the abdomen or pelvis. When cancer spread to the peritoneal surfaces is documented, a decision regarding palliation versus an aggressive approach using cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) must be made. This decision is dependent on a well-defined group of prognostic indicators. In addition to treatment, prevention of peritoneal metastases may be an option. The clinical and pathologic features of a primary cancer can be used to select perioperative treatments that may prevent cancer cells within the abdomen and pelvis from progressing to established peritoneal metastases. In some clinical situations with appendiceal and colorectal cancers, the clinical or histopathologic features may indicate that second-look surgery plus perioperative chemotherapy should occur. Peritoneal metastases should always be considered by the multidisciplinary team for treatment or prevention.


Peritoneal metastases Appendiceal cancer Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma Colon cancer Recurrent ovarian cancer Gastric cancer Cancer prevention 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Sugarbaker PH (2006) New standard of care for appendiceal epithelial malignancies and pseudomyxoma peritonei syndrome. Lancet Oncol 7(1):69–76CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sugarbaker PH, Turaga KK, Alexander HR Jr, Deraco M, Hesdorffer M (2016) Management of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma using cytoreductive surgery and perioperative chemotherapy. J Oncol Pract 12(10):928–935CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Colon cancer. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN guidelines). Version 2.2017—March 13, 2017. Accessed at
  4. 4.
    Tewari D, Java JJ, Salani R, Armstrong DK, Markman M, Herzog T, Monk BJ, Chan JK (2015) Long-term survival advantage and prognostic factors associated with intraperitoneal chemotherapy treatment in advanced ovarian cancer: a gynecologic oncology group study. J Clin Oncol 33:1460–1466CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sugarbaker PH, Kwong ML. Regional chemotherapy: possibilities for prevention and treatment of peritoneal metastases from gastric cancer. (In) Management of gastric cancer. SMGroup at
  6. 6.
    Goere D, Passot G, Gelli M, Sugarbaker PH, Glehen O (2017) Complete cytoreductive surgery plus HIPEC for peritoneal metastases from unusual cancer sites of origin: results from a worldwide analysis of the Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI). Int J Hyperth 33:528–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chu DZ, Lang NP, Thompson C, Osteen PK, Westbrook KC (1989) Peritoneal carcinomatosis in nongynecologic malignancy: a prospective study of prognostic factors. Cancer 63:364–367CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sadeghi B, Arvieux C, Glehen O, Beaujard AC, Rivoire M, Baulieux J, Fontaumard E, Brachet A, Caillot JL, Faure JL, Porcheron J, Peix JL, François Y, Vignal J, Gilly FN (2000) Peritoneal carcinomatosis from non-gynecologic malignancies. Results of the EVOCAPE 1 multicentric prospective study. Cancer 88:358–363CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jayne DG, Fook S, Loi C, Seow-Choen F (2002) Peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer. Br J Surg 89:1545–1550CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Popovich RP, Moncrief JW, Nolph KD, Ghods AJ, Twardowski ZJ, Pyle WK (1978) Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Ann Intern Med 88:449–456CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Karnofsky DA, Abelmann WH, Craver LF et al (1948) The use of the nitrogen mustards in the palliative treatment of carcinoma. Cancer 40:634–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Torres IJ, Litterst CL, Guarino AM (1978) Transport of model compounds across the peritoneal membrane in the rat. Pharmacology 17:330–340CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dedrick RL, Myers CE, Bungay PM, de Vita V Jr (1978) Pharmacokinetic rationale for peritoneal drug administration in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 62:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Speyer JL, Collins JM, Dedrick RL, Brennan MF, Buckpitt AR, Londer H, DeVita VT Jr, Myers CE (1980) Phase 1 and pharmacologic studies of 5-fluorouracil administered intraperitoneally. Cancer Res 40:567–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Speyer JL, Sugarbaker PH, Collins JM, Dedrick RL, Klecker RW Jr, Myers CE (1981) Portal levels and hepatic clearance of 5-fluorouracil after intraperitoneal administration in humans. Cancer Res 41:1916–1922PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jones RB, Myers CE, Guarino AM et al (1978) High volume intraperitoneal chemotherapy (“belly bath”) for ovarian cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1:161–166CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ozols RF, Locker GY, Doroshow JH, Grotzinger KR, Myers CE, Young RC (1979) Pharmacokinetics of adriamycin and tissue penetration in murine ovarian cancer. Cancer Res 39:3209–3214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    McVie JG, Dikhoff T, Van der Heide J et al (1985) Tissue concentration of platinum after intraperitoneal cisplatinum in patients. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 26:162Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sugarbaker PH, van der Speeten K (2016) Surgical technology and pharmacology of hyperthermic perioperative chemotherapy. J Gastrointest Oncol 7(1):29–44PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Van der Speeten K, Stuart OA, Chang D, Mahteme H, Sugarbaker PH (2011) Changes induced by surgical and clinical factors in the pharmacology of intraperitoneal mitomycin C in 145 patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 68:147–156CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shiu MH, Fortner JG (1980) Intraperitoneal hyperthermic treatment of implanted peritoneal cancer in rats. Cancer Res 40:4081–4084PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Meyer JL, Kapp DS, Fessenden P, Hahn GH (1989) Hyperthermic oncology: current biology, physics and clinical results. Pharmac Ther 42:251–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Spratt JS, Adcock RA, Muskovin M, Sherrill W, McKeown J (1980) Clinical delivery system for intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy. Cancer Res 40:256–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Koga S, Hamazoe R, Maeta M, Shimizu N, Kanayama H, Osaki Y (1980) Treatment of implanted peritoneal cancer in rats by continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion in combination with an anticancer drug. Cancer Res 44:1840–1842Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Koga S, Hamazoe R, Maeta M, Shimizu N, Murakami A, et al (1988) Prophylactic therapy for peritoneal recurrence of gastric cancer by continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion with mitomycin C. 61:232–237Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fujimura T, Yonemura Y, Muraoka K, Takamura H, Hirono Y, Sahara H, Ninomiya I, Matsumoto H, Tsugawa K, Nishimura GI, Sugiyama K, Miwa K, Miyazaki I (1994) Continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion for the prevention of peritoneal recurrence of gastric cancer: randomized controlled study. World J Surg 18:150–155CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fujimoto S, Takahashi M, Mutou T, Kobayashi K, Toyosawa T (1998) Successful intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemoperfusion for the prevention of postoperative peritoneal recurrence in patients with advanced gastric carcinoma. Cancer 85:529–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yan TD, Black D, Sugarbaker PH, Zhu J, Yonemura Y, Petrou G, Morris DL (2007) A systematic review and meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials on adjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy for resectable gastric cancer. Ann Surg Oncol 14(10):2702–2713CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Feingold PL, Kwong MLM, Sabesan A, Sorber R, Rudloff U (2016) Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for gastric cancer and other less common disease histologies: is it time? J Gastrointest Oncol 7:87–98PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yonemura Y, de Aretxabala X, Fujimura T, Fushida S, Katayama K, Bandou E, Sugiyama K, Kawamura T, Kinoshita K, Endou Y, Sasaki T (2001) Intraoperative chemohyperthermic peritoneal perfusion as an adjuvant to gastric cancer: final results of a randomized controlled study. Hepatogastroenterology 48:1776–1782PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31. [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). 2013 June 13. Identifier NCT01882933, D2 Resection and HIPEC (Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemoperfusion) in Locally Advanced Gastric Carcinoma (GASTRICHIP); [cited 2017 April 22]; Available from:
  32. 32.
    Quirke P, Sebag-Montefiore D, Steele R et al (2006) Local recurrence after rectal cancer resection is strongly related to the plane of the surgical dissection and is further reduced by pre-operative short course radiotherapy. Preliminary results of the Medical Research Council (MRC) CR07 trial. J Clin Oncol vol. 24, article 3512Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Heald RJ, Ryall RDH (1986) Recurrence and survival after total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Lancet 1(8496):1479–1482CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    West NP, Hohenberger W, Weber K, Perrakis A, Finan PJ, Quirke P (2010) Complete mesocolic excision with central vascular ligation produces an oncologically superior specimen compared with standard surgery for carcinoma of the colon. J Clin Oncol 28(2):272–278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sugarbaker PH (2013) Colorectal cancer metastases, a surgical perspective. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 22(2):289–298CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Honore C, Gelli M, Francoul J et al (2017) Ninety percent of the adverse outcomes in 10% of patients: can we identify the populations at high risk of developing peritoneal metastases after curative surgery for colorectal cancer? Int J Hyperth 33(5):505–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Honore C, Goere D, Souadka A, Dumont F, Elias D (2013) Definition of patient presenting a high risk of developing peritoneal carcinomatosis after curative surgery for colorectal cancer: a systematic review. Ann Surg Oncol 20:183–192CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cunliffe WJ, Sugarbaker PH (1989) Gastrointestinal malignancy: rationale for adjuvant therapy using early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (EPIC). Br J Surg 76:1082–1090CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sugarbaker PH, Graves T, DeBruijn EA, Cunliffe WJ, Mullins RE, Hull WE, Oliff L, Schlag P (1990) Early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy as an adjuvant therapy to surgery for peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastrointestinal cancer: pharmacologic studies. Cancer Res 50:5790–5794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sugarbaker PH (1999) Successful management of microscopic residual disease in large bowel cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 43(Suppl):S15–S25CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jacquet P, Averbach A, Stephens AD, Stuart OA, Chang D, Sugarbaker PH (1998) Heated intraoperative intraperitoneal mitomycin C and early postoperative intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil: pharmacokinetic studies. Oncology 55:130–138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pestieau SR, Sugarbaker PH (2000) Treatment of primary colon cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis: a comparison of concomitant versus delayed management. Dis Colon Rectum 43:1341–1348CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tentes AA, Spiliotis ID, Korakianitis OS, Vaxevanidou A, Kyziridis D (2011) Adjuvant perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy in locally advanced colorectal carcinoma: preliminary results. ISRN Surg 2011:529876CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Noura S, Ohue M, Shingai T, Kano S, Ohigashi H, Yano M, Ishikawa O, Takenaka A, Murata K, Kameyama M (2011) Effects of intraperitoneal chemotherapy with mitomycin C on the prevention of peritoneal recurrence in colorectal cancer patients with positive peritoneal lavage cytology findings. Ann Surg Oncol 18:396–404CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Braam HJ, Boerma D, Wiezer MJ, Ramshorst v (2013) Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy during primary tumour resection limits extent of bowel resection compared to two-stage treatment. Eur J Surg Oncol 39:988–993CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sammartino P, Sibio S, Accarpio F, Di Giorgio A (2014) Long-term results after proactive management for locoregional control in patients with colonic cancer at high risk of peritoneal metastases. Int J Color Dis 29:1081–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yu W, Whang I, Chung HY, Averbach A, Sugarbaker PH (2001) Indications for early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy of advanced gastric cancer: results of a prospective randomized trial. World J Surg 25:985–990CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Glehen O, Kwiatkowski F, Sugarbaker PH, Elias D, Levine EA, de Simone M, Barone R, Yonemura Y, Cavaliere F, Quenet F, Gutman M, Tentes AA, Lorimier G, Bernard JL, Bereder JM, Porcheron J, Gomez-Portilla A, Shen P, Deraco M, Rat P (2004) Cytoreductive surgery combined with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for management of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer: a multi-institutional study. J Clin Oncol 22(16):3284–3292CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sugarbaker PH, van der Speeten K, Stuart OA, Chang D, Mahteme H (2012) Patient- and treatment-related variables, adverse events and their statistical relationship for treatment of peritoneal metastases. In: Sugarbaker PH (ed) Cytoreductive surgery & perioperative chemotherapy for peritoneal surface malignancy. Textbook and video atlas. Cine-Med Publishing, Woodbury, pp 183–206Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tanis PJ, Academisch Medisch Centrum - Universiteit van Amsterdam (AMC-UvA). Adjuvant HIPEC in High Risk Colon Cancer (COLOPEC). In: [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). [cited 2017 September 19]. Available from: NLM Identifier: NCT02231086
  51. 51.
    Sugarbaker PH, Sammartino P, Tentes AA (2012) Proactive management of peritoneal metastases from colorectal cancer: the next logical step toward optimal locoregional control. Colorect Cancer 1(2):115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sammartino P, Tentes AA, Sugarbaker PH (2015) Eradication of minimal residual disease in the perioperative period in primary colorectal cancer. Colorectal Cancer 4:157–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sammartino P, Societa Italiana di Chirurgia Oncologica (SICO). PROMENADE Trial (PROactive Management of ENdoperitoneal spreAD in colonic cancer). [cited 2017 September 19]Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Griffen WO, Humphrey L, Sosin H (1969) The prognosis and management of recurrent abdominal malignancies. Curr Probl Surg 6:1–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Minton JP, Hoehn JL, Gerber DM, Horsley JS, Connolly DP, Salwan F, Fletcher WS, Cruz AB, Gatchell FG, Oviedo M, Meyer KK, Leffall LD, Berk RS, Stewart PA, Kurucz SE (1985) Results of a 400-patient carcinoembryonic antigen second-look colorectal cancer study. Cancer 55:1284–1290CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sugarbaker PH (2011) Second-look surgery for colorectal cancer: revised selection factors and new treatment options for greater success. Int J Surg Oncol Volume 2011:Article ID 915078, 8 pages. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Elias D, Goere D, Di Pietrantonio D et al (2008) Results of systematic second-look surgery in patients at high risk of developing colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis. Ann Surg 247(3):445–450CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Delhorme JB, Triki E, Romain B, Meyer N, Rohr S, Brigand C (2015) Routine second-look after surgical treatment of colonic peritoneal carcinomatosis. J Visc Surg 152(3):149–154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sugarbaker PH, Stuart OA, Bijelic L. Intraperitoneal gemcitabine chemotherapy treatment for patients with resected pancreatic cancer, rationale and report of early data. Int J Surg Oncol Volume 2011, Article ID 161862, 7 pages,
  60. 60.
    Sugarbaker PH (1995) Peritonectomy procedures. Ann Surg 221:29–42CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Los G, Mutsaers PH, Lenglet WJ, Baldew GS, McVie JG (1990) Platinum distribution in intraperitoneal tumors after intraperitoneal cisplatin treatment. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 25:389–394CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sugarbaker PH, Jablonski KA (1995) Prognostic features of 51 colorectal and 130 appendiceal cancer patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis treated by cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Ann Surg 221(2):124–132CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sethna KS, Sugarbaker PH (2004) New prospects for the control of peritoneal surface dissemination of gastric cancer using perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Cancer Therapy 2:79–84Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sugarbaker PH (2005) Strategies for the prevention and treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastrointestinal cancer. Cancer Investig 23:155–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jacquet P, Sugarbaker PH (1996) Current methodologies for clinical assessment of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 15(1):49–58Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    da Silva RG, Sugarbaker PH (2006) Analysis of prognostic factors in seventy patients having a complete cytoreduction plus perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer. J Am Coll Surg 203(6):878–886CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Glehen O, Gilly FN, Arvieux C et al (2010) Peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancer: a multi-institutional study of 159 patients treated by cytoreductive surgery combined with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol 17(9):2370–2377CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lampe B, Kroll N, Piso P, Forner DM, Mallman P (2015) Prognostic significance of Sugarbaker’s peritoneal cancer index for the operability of ovarian carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 25:135–144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sugarbaker PH, Yan TD, Stuart OA, Yoo D (2006) Comprehensive management of diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma. Eur J Surg Oncol 32(6):686–691CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sugarbaker PH, Chang D (2017) Long-term regional chemotherapy for patients with epithelial malignant peritoneal mesothelioma results in improved survival. Eur J Surg Oncol 43(7):1228–1235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sugarbaker PH (2017) Pseudomyxoma peritonei and peritoneal metastases from appendiceal malignancy. In: Sugarbaker PH (ed) Cytoreductive surgery & perioperative chemotherapy for peritoneal surface malignancy. Textbook and video atlas (second edition). Cine-Med Publishers, Woodbury, pp 109–132Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gonzalez-Moreno S, Yan H, Alcorn KW, Sugarbaker PH (2002) Malignant transformation of “benign” cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum. J Surg Oncol 79(4):243–251CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ihemelandu C, Sugarbaker PH (2016) Clinicopathologic and prognostic features in patients with peritoneal metastasis from mucinous adenocarcinoma, adenocarcinoma with signet ring cells, and adenocarcinoid of the appendix treated with cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol 23(5):1474–1480CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Elias D, Benizri E, Pocard M, Ducreux M, Boige V, Lasser P (2006) Treatment of synchronous peritoneal carcinomatosis and liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Eur J Sur Oncol 32(6):632–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Yan TD, Morris DL, Kusamura S, Baratti D, Deraco M (2008) Preoperative investigations in the management of peritoneal surface malignancy with cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy: expert consensus statement. J Surg Oncol 98:224–227CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Jacquet P, Jelinek JS, Steves MA, Sugarbaker PH (1993) Evaluation of computer tomography in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Cancer 72(5):1631–1636CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Koh JL, Yan TD, Glenn D, Morris DL (2009) Evaluation of preoperative computed tomography in estimating peritoneal cancer index in colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis. Ann Surg Oncol 16:327–333CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sugarbaker PH, Sardi A, Brown G, Dromain C, Rousset P, Jelinek JS (2017) Concerning CT features used to select patients for treatment of peritoneal metastases, a pictoral essay. Int J Hyperth 33(5):497–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jacquet P, Jelinek JS, Chang D, Koslowe P, Sugarbaker PH (1995) Abdominal computed tomographic scan in the selection of patients with mucinous peritoneal carcinomatosis for cytoreductive surgery. J Am Coll Surg 181:530–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Yan TD, Haveric N, Carmignani P, Chang D, Sugarbaker PH (2005) Abdominal computed tomography scans in the selection of patients with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma for comprehensive treatment with cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Cancer 15:839–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rivard JD, Temple WJ, McConnell YJ et al (2014) Preoperative computed tomography does not predict resectability in peritoneal carcinomatosis. Am J Surg 207:760–765CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Suidan RS, Ramirez PT, Sarasohn DM, Teitcher JB, Mironov S, Iyer RB, Zhou Q, Iasonos A, Paul H, Hosaka M, Aghajanian CA, Leitao MM Jr, Gardner GJ, Abu-Rustum NR, Sonoda Y, Levine DA, Hricak H, Chi DS (2014) A multicenter prospective trial evaluating the ability of preoperative computed tomography scan and serum CA-125 to predict suboptimal cytoreduction at primary debulking surgery for advanced ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer. Gynecol Oncol 134(3):455–461CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Goere D, Souadka A, Faron M et al (2015) Extent of colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis: attempt to define a threshold above which HIPEC does not offer survival benefit: a comparative study. Ann Surg Oncol 22:2958–2964CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Chi DS, Eisenhauer EL, Zivanovic O, Sonoda Y, Abu-Rustum NR, Levine DA, Guile MW, Bristow RE, Aghajanian C, Barakat RR (2009) Improved progression-free and overall survival in advanced ovarian cancer as a result of a change in surgical paradigm. Gynecol Oncol 114:26–31CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sugarbaker PH, Welch L, Mohamed F, Glehen O (2003) A review of peritoneal mesothelioma at the Washington Cancer Institute. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 12(3):605–621CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Glehen O, Mohamed F, Sugarbaker PH (2004) Incomplete cytoreduction in 174 patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from appendiceal malignancy. Ann Surg 240(2):275–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Look M, Chang D, Sugarbaker PH (2004) Long-term results of cytoreductive surgery for advanced and recurrent epithelial ovarian cancers and papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum. Int J Gynecol Cancer 14(1):35–41CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Berthet B, Sugarbaker TA, Chang D, Sugarbaker PH (1999) Quantitative methodologies for selection of patients with recurrent abdominopelvic sarcoma for treatment. Eur J Cancer 35(3):413–419CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Paul BK, Ihemelandu C, Sugarbaker PH Prior surgical score: an analysis of the prognostic significance of an initial non-definitive surgical intervention in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of a colorectal origin undergoing cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Abstract in diseases of colon and rectum, March 2016Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Van der Speeten K, Stuart OA, Sugarbaker PH (2012) Pharmacology of perioperative intraperitoneal and intravenous chemotherapy in patients with peritoneal surface malignancy. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 21(4):577–597CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mohamed F, Sugarbaker PH (2003) Intraperitoneal taxanes. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 12(3):825–833CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bakrin N, Bereder JM, Decullier E et al (2013) Peritoneal carcinomatosis treated with cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for advanced ovarian carcinoma: a French multicentre retrospective cohort study of 566 patients. Eur J Surg Oncol 22:1570–1575Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Van der Speeten K, Stuart OA, Mahteme H, Sugarbaker PH Pharmacokinetic study of perioperative intravenous ifosfamide. Int J Surg Oncol 2011:Article ID 185092, 9 pages.
  94. 94.
    Elias D, Bonnay M, Puizillou JM, Antoun S, Demirdjian S, el Otmany A, Pignon JP, Drouard-Troalen L, Ouellet JF, Ducreux M (2002) Heated intra-operative intraperitoneal oxaliplatin after complete resection of peritoneal carcinomatosis: pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution. Ann Oncol 13:267–272CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Van Ruth S, Verwaal VJ, Zoetmulder FAN (2003) Pharmacokinetics of intraperitoneal mitomycin C. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 12:771–780CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sugarbaker PH, Van der Speeten K, Stuart OA et al (2011) Impact of surgical and clinical factors on the pharmacology of intraperitoneal doxorubicin in 145 patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Eur J Surg Oncol 37:719–726CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sticca RP, Dach BW (2003) Rationale for hyperthermia with intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy agents. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 12:689–701CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sugarbaker PH (2007) Laboratory and clinical basis for hyperthermia as a component of intracavitary chemotherapy. Int J Hyperth 23:431–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Jacquet P, Averbach A, Stuart OA, Chang D, Sugarbaker PH (1998) Hyperthermic intraperitoneal doxorubicin: pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and tissue distribution in a rat model. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 41:147–154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Young JS, Lumsden CE, Stalker AL (1950) The significance of the tissue pressure of normal testicular and of neoplastic (Brown-Pearce carcinoma) tissue in the rabbit. J Pathol Bacteriol 62:313–333CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Leunig M, Goetz AE, Dellian M, Zetterer G, Gamarra F, Jain RK, Messmer K (1992) Interstitial fluid pressure in solid tumors following hyperthermia: possible correlation with therapeutic response. Cancer Res 52:487–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Urano M, Kuroda M, Nishimura Y (1999) Invited review for the clinical application of thermochemotherapy given at mild temperatures. Int J Hyperth 15:79–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sugarbaker PH, van der Speeten K (2017) An overview of peritonectomy, visceral resection, and therapeutic laparoscopy for peritoneal surface malignancy. In: Sugarbaker PH (ed) Cytoreductive surgery & perioperative chemotherapy for peritoneal surface malignancy. Textbook and video atlas (second edition). Cine-Med Publishers, Woodbury, pp 17–46Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Benoit L, Cheynel N, Ortega-Deballon P, Giacomo GD, Chauffert B, Rat P (2008) Closed hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with open abdomen: a novel technique to reduce exposure of the surgical team to chemotherapy drugs. Ann Surg Oncol 15:542–546CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Yan TD, Black D, Savady R, Sugarbaker PH (2007) A systematic review on the efficacy of cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for pseudomyxoma peritonei. Ann Surg Oncol 14(2):484–492CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Feldman AL, Libutti SK, Pingpank JF, Bartlett DL, Beresnev TH, Mavroukakis SM, Steinberg SM, Liewehr DJ, Kleiner DE, Alexander HR (2003) Analysis of factors associated with outcome in patients with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma undergoing surgical debulking and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 21(24):4560–4567CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hesdorffer ME, Chabot JA, Keohan ML, Fountain K, Talbot S, Gabay M, Valentin C, Lee SM, Taub RN (2008) Combined resection, intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and whole abdominal radiation for the treatment of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma. Am J Clin Oncol 31(1):49–54CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Deraco M, Nonaka D, Baratti D, Casali P, Rosai J, Younan R, Salvatore A, Cabras AD, Kusamura S (2006) Prognostic analysis of clinicopathologic factors in 49 patients with diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma treated with cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion. Ann Surg Oncol 13(2):229–237CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Verwaal VJ, van Ruth S, Witkamp A, Boot H, van Slooten G, Zoetmulder FAN (2005) Long-term survival of peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin. Ann Surg Oncol 12(1):65–71CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Shen P, Hawksworth J, Lovato J, Loggie BW, Geisinger KR, Fleming RA, Levine EA (2004) Cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy with mitomycin C for peritoneal carcinomatosis from nonappendiceal colorectal carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol 11(2):178–186CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Elias D, Gilly F, Boutitie F et al (2010) Peritoneal colorectal carcinomatosis treated with surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy: restrospective analysis of 523 patients from a multicentric French study. J Clin Oncol 28(1):63–68CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Verwaal VJ, van Ruth S, de Bree E, van Slooten GW, van Tinteren H, Boot H, Zoetmulder FAN (2003) Randomized trial of cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy versus systemic chemotherapy and palliative surgery in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol 21(20):3737–3743CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Verwaal VJ, Bruin S, Boot H, van Slooten G, van Tinteren H (2008) 8-Year follow-up of randomized trial: cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy versus systemic chemotherapy in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol 15(9):2426–2432CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Yan TD, Black D, Savady R, Sugarbaker PH (2006) Systematic review on the efficacy of cytoreductive surgery combined with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 24(24):4011–4019CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Xu DZ, Zhan YQ, Sun XW, Cao SM, Geng QR (2004) Meta-analysis of intraperitoneal chemotherapy for gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol 10:2727–2730CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116. [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). 2013 June 13. Identifier NCT01882933, D2 Resection and HIPEC (Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemoperfusion) in Locally Advanced Gastric Carcinoma (GASTRICHIP); [cited 2017 September 20]; Available from:
  117. 117.
    Bijelic L, Jonson A, Sugarbaker PH (2007) Systematic review of cytoreductive surgery and heated intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy for treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis in primary and recurrent ovarian cancer. Ann Oncol 18(12):1943–1450CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Elias D, Raynard B, Bonnay M, Pocard M (2006) Heated intra-operative intraperitoneal oxaliplatin alone and in combination with intraperitoneal irinotecan: pharmacologic studies. Eur J Surg Oncol 32:607–613CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Association of Surgical Oncology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Gastrointestinal MalignanciesMedStar Washington Hospital CenterWashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations