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Correction to: Educational Opportunities for Down-Staging Breast Cancer in Low-Income Countries: an Example from Tanzania

  • Kristen Yang
  • Khadija Msami
  • Rose Calixte
  • Julius Mwaiselage
  • Joan Dorn
  • Amr S. SolimanEmail author
Correction
  • 39 Downloads

Erratum to: Journal of Cancer Education

  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13187-019-01587-2

The original version of this article unfortunately contained errors. The presentation for Tables 1 and 2 are incorrect. The corrected versions are given below. The original article has been corrected.
Table 1

Comparison of sociodemographic characteristics of breast cancer patients at Ocean Road Cancer Institute by stage, 2016–2018

 

Early stage (n = 44, 22.4%)

Late stage (n = 152, 77.6%)

p value

Mean age in years ± SD

51.5 ± 10.3

51.6 ± 12.9

0.982

Number of children

3.0 (2.0–5.0)

3.0 (2.0–5.0)

0.923

Time from symptoms to ORCI (months)

7.0 (5.0–10.0)

11.0 (5.0–19.0)

0.024*

Time from first physician visit to ORCI (months)

6.0 (3.0–10.0)

7.0 (3.0–15.0)

0.591

Travel time to nearest health center (min)

30.0 (10.0–60.0)

30.0 (10.0–52.5)

0.499

Travel time to ORCI (h)

6.0 (1.5–12.0)

9.0 (2.0–12.0)

0.360

Previous breast exam (N, %)

24 (54.5%)

30 (19.7%)

< 0.001*

Time elapsed to first physician visit

  

0.015*

  < 1 month

31 (70.5%)

91 (59.9%)

 

  1–2 months

9 (20.5%)

19 (12.5%)

 

  ≥ 3 months

4 (9.1%)

42 (27.6%)

 

Family history of BC (N, %)

9 (20.5%)

22 (14.5%)

0.352

Location

  

0.373

  Away from Dar es Salaam

9 (20.5%)

51 (33.6%)

 

  Dar Es Salaam

12 (27.3%)

37 (24.3%)

 

  Near Dar es Salaam

10 (22.7%)

24 (15.8%)

 

  Unknown

13 (29.6%)

40 (26.3%)

 

Source of learning about breast cancer

  

0.954

  Healthcare workers

9 (20.5%)

33 (21.7%)

 

  Other sources

3 (6.8%)

8 (5.3%)

 

  TV/radio

32 (72.7%)

111 (73.0%)

 

First symptoms of breast cancer

  

0.125

  Breast mass with other symptoms

5 (11.4%)

13 (8.6%)

 

  Breast mass with pain

8 (18.2%)

52 (34.2%)

 

  Breast mass without pain

31 (70.5%)

87 (57.2%)

 

Religion

  

0.861

  Islamic

18 (40.9%)

58 (38.2%)

 

  Christian

26 (59.1%)

94 (61.8%)

 

Employment status

  

0.212

  Employed

9 (20.5%)

18 (11.8%)

 

  Unemployed/housewife

35 (79.6%)

134 (88.2%)

 

Marital status

  

0.057

  Married

22 (50.0%)

93 (61.2%)

 

  Widowed/separated/divorced

20 (45.5%)

42 (27.6%)

 

  Never married

2 (4.6%)

17 (11.2%)

 

Education level

  

0.538

  No formal/informal education

6 (13.6%)

34 (22.4%)

 

  Some formal education

36 (81.8%)

113 (74.3%)

 

  University

2 (4.6%)

5(3.3%)

 

*Statistical comparison of demographic and clinical characteristics of patients presenting in early vs. late stage of breast cancer were done using two sample t test, the Wilcoxon rank sum test, and the chi-square test of independence. Results with p value < 0.05 are considered significant

Table 2

Comparison of patient and health system factors related to late breast cancer treatment at the Ocean Road Cancer Institute

 

Early stage (n = 44)

Late stage (n = 152)

p value

 

(N, %)

(N, %)

 

Patient factors:

  Fear of stigmatization

3 (9.7%)

7 (5.7%)

0.424

  Time restraints

8 (25.8%)

58 (47.5%)

0.041*

  Required permission from a family member

4 (12.9%)

26 (21.3%)

0.447

  Financial restraints

11 (35.5%)

68 (55.7%)

0.047*

  Household obligations

6 (19.4%)

33 (27.0%)

0.491

  Initial symptoms were not taken seriously

16 (51.6%)

84 (68.9%)

0.091

  Fear of breast cancer death

20 (64.5%)

59 (48.4%)

0.158

  Fear of being medically examined

6 (19.4%)

17 (13.9%)

0.415

  Feelings of discomfort towards healthcare professionals

4 (14.3%)

16 (12.4%)

0.759

Health system factors:

  Hospital’s failure to inform of biopsy requirements

21 (75.0%)

88 (68.2%)

0.651

  Difficulty with navigating the referral system

21 (75.0%)

91 (70.5%)

0.818

  Lack of knowledge

15 (53.6%)

76 (58.9%)

0.675

  Healthcare professional’s misinterpretation of biopsy results

20 (71.4%)

93 (72.1%)

0.999

  Initial prescription of antibiotics

7 (25.0%)

28 (21.7%)

0.802

  No referral for further care upon initial presentation

7 (25.0%)

33 (25.6%)

0.999

  Misdiagnosis

1 (3.6%)

6 (4.7%)

0.999

  Delay in receiving biopsy results

11 (39.3%)

53 (41.4%)

0.999

*Patients factors and health system factors affecting presentation in early vs. late stage of breast cancer were compared using Fisher’s exact test. Results with p value < 0.05 are considered significant

Notes

Copyright information

© American Association for Cancer Education 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristen Yang
    • 1
  • Khadija Msami
    • 2
  • Rose Calixte
    • 1
  • Julius Mwaiselage
    • 2
  • Joan Dorn
    • 1
  • Amr S. Soliman
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Community Health and Social MedicineCity University of New York School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Ocean Road Cancer InstituteDar es SalaamTanzania

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