Advertisement

Skin Cancer Prevention: Psychosocial Predictors of Sunscreen Use in University Students

  • Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh
  • Hassan Gharibnavaz
  • Farzad JalilianEmail author
Article

Abstract

Skin cancer has the most prevention potential among all cancers. Sunscreen use is an effective method in reducing the risk prevalence of skin cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the cognitive determinants of sunscreen use among university students based on the health belief model (HBM). This cross-sectional study was conducted among 301 university students in the west of Iran. Students were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 using appropriate statistical tests including correlation and logistic regression at 95% significance level. Our results indicated 44.2% of participants reported had always sunscreen use. Among the HBM constructs, cues to action with odds ratio estimate of 1.146 (95% CI 1.061, 1.239) and perceived self-efficacy with odds ratio estimate of 1.131 (95% CI 1.036, 1.234) were the more influential predictors on always sunscreen use. Female students and high levels of mother’s education were significant predictors of sunscreen use. It seems these findings are useful in planning health promotion programs aimed at increasing self-efficacy for sunscreen use.

Keywords

Self-efficacy Mother’s education Female Behavior change Health education 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This article is a part of a research project supported by the research center for environmental determinants of health in KUMS, Kermanshah, Iran. We would like to thank the research deputy of KUMS for funding this study.

Funding

The authors acknowledge and appreciate the funding provided by the KUMS for conducting this study. The funder had no role in designing the study; in collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; or in writing the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

Ethical approval for the research was obtained from the ethical committee of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS) (IR.KUMS.REC.1397.742). The participants were informed about the aim and design of the study. They were told that participation was voluntary and guaranteed that their identities and responses would be kept confidential.

References

  1. 1.
    Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A (2018) Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin 68(6):394–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Keyghobadi N, Rafiemanesh H, Mohammadian-Hafshejani A, Enayatrad M, Salehiniya H (2015) Epidemiology and trend of cancers in the province of Kerman: southeast of Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 16(4):1409–1403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Torre LA, Bray F, Siegel RL, Ferlay J, Lortet-Tieulent J, Jemal A (2015) Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin 65(2):87–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pakzad R, Soltani S, Salehiniya H (2015) Epidemiology and trend in skin cancer mortality in Iran. J Res Med Sci 20(9):921–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mousavi SM, Gouya MM, Ramazani R, Davanlou M, Hajsadeghi N, Seddighi Z (2008) Cancer incidence and mortality in Iran. Ann Oncol 20(3):556–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chang SB, Askew RL, Xing Y, Weaver S, Gershenwald JE, Lee JE, Royal R, Lucci A, Ross MI, Cormier JN (2010) Prospective assessment of postoperative complications and associated costs following inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) in melanoma patients. Ann Surg Oncol 17(10):2764–2772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berking C, Hauschild A, Kölbl O, Mast G, Gutzmer R (2014) Basal cell carcinoma—treatments for the commonest skin cancer. Dtsch Arztebl Int 111(22):389–395PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gordon LG, Rowell D (2015) Health system costs of skin cancer and cost-effectiveness of skin cancer prevention and screening: a systematic review. Eur J Cancer Prev 24(2):141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guy GP Jr, Machlin SR, Ekwueme DU, Yabroff KR (2015) Prevalence and costs of skin cancer treatment in the US, 2002−2006 and 2007−2011. Am J Prev Med 48(2):183–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mudigonda T, Levender MM, O'neill JL, West CE, Pearce DJ, Feldman SR (2013) Incidence, risk factors, and preventative management of skin cancers in organ transplant recipients: a review of single-and multicenter retrospective studies from 2006 to 2010. Dermatol Surg 39(3pt1):345–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Razi S, Rafiemanesh H, Ghoncheh M, Khani Y, Salehiniya H (2015) Changing trends of types of skin cancer in Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 16(12):4955–4958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brunssen A, Waldmann A, Eisemann N, Katalinic A (2017) Impact of skin cancer screening and secondary prevention campaigns on skin cancer incidence and mortality: a systematic review. J Am Acad Dermatol 76(1):129–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lamort-Bouché M, Sarnin P, Kok G, Rouat S, Péron J, Letrilliart L, Fassier JB (2018) Interventions developed with the intervention mapping protocol in the field of cancer: a systematic review. Psycho-oncology. 27(4):1138–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kok G, Gottlieb NH, Peters GJ, Mullen PD, Parcel GS, Ruiter RA, Fernández ME, Markham C, Bartholomew LK (2016) A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an intervention mapping approach. Health Psychol Rev 10(3):297–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Michie S, Johnston M, Francis J, Hardeman W, Eccles M (2008) From theory to intervention: mapping theoretically derived behavioural determinants to behaviour change techniques. Appl Psychol 57(4):660–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Green EC, Murphy E (2014) Health belief model. The Wiley Blackwell encyclopedia of health, illness, behavior, and society 766–9Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    McWhirter JE, Hoffman-Goetz L (2016) Application of the health belief model to US magazine text and image coverage of skin cancer and recreational tanning (2000–2012). J Health Commun 21(4):424–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Skiveren J, Mortensen EL, Haedersdal M (2010) Sun protective behaviour in renal transplant recipients. A qualitative study based on individual interviews and the health belief model. J Dermatol Treat 21(6):331–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Grubbs LM, Tabano M (2000) Use of sunscreen in health care professionals: the health belief model. Cancer Nurs 23(3):164–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Peters BS, Dos Santos LC, Fisberg M, Wood RJ, Martini LA (2009) Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in Brazilian adolescents. Ann Nutr Metab 54(1):15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hosseini SN, Ghajari H, Zinat Motlagh F, Hosseini T, Khanlari P, Mahboubi M (2018) Psychological determinants of sunscreen use among Iranian students: a theory based cross-sectional study. Int J Pediatr 6(5):7673–7681Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Neale R, Williams G, Green A (2002) Application patterns among participants randomized to daily sunscreen use in a skin cancer prevention trial. Arch Dermatol 138(10):1319–1325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Montague M, Borland R, Sinclair C (2001) Slip! Slop! Slap! And SunSmart, 1980-2000: skin cancer control and 20 years of population-based campaigning. Health Educ Behav 28(3):290–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dunn MS (2014) Sun tanning behaviors, health beliefs, attitudes and intentions among college students. Calif J Health Promot 12(2):69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nahar VK, Ford MA, Hallam JS, Bass MA, Hutcheson A, Vice MA (2013) Skin cancer knowledge, beliefs, self-efficacy, and preventative behaviors among North Mississippi landscapers. Dermatol Res Pract 2013. Article ID 496913, 7 pages:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Butera CL, Clark MJ, Georges J, Bush RA (2015) Skin cancer risk perception and sunscreen use in adolescent female soccer athletes. J Dermatol Nurses Assoc 7(2):89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cercato MC, Ramazzotti V, Sperduti I, Asensio-Pascual A, Ribes I, Guillén C, Nagore E (2015) Sun protection among Spanish beachgoers: knowledge, attitude and behaviour. J Cancer Educ 30(1):4–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kasparian NA, McLoone JK, Meiser B (2009) Skin cancer-related prevention and screening behaviors: a review of the literature. J Behav Med 32(5):406–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Association for Cancer Education 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh
    • 1
  • Hassan Gharibnavaz
    • 1
  • Farzad Jalilian
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Social Development & Health Promotion Research Center, Health InstituteKermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran

Personalised recommendations