Journal of Cancer Education

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 161–172 | Cite as

The Effect of Educational Program Based on PRECEDE Model in Promoting Prostate Cancer Screening in a Sample of Iranian Men

  • Ali Khani JeihooniEmail author
  • Seyyed Mansour Kashfi
  • Mahmood Hatami
  • Abulqasim Avand
  • Mohammad-Rafi Bazrafshan


Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent diseases among men. This study aimed to assess the effect of educational program based on Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Constructs in Educational/Environmental Diagnosis and Evaluation (PRECEDE) model in promoting prostate cancer screening in a sample of Iranian men. This is a quasi-experimental study carried out on 300 men aged 40 to 70 (the subjects 150 experimental and 150 control groups) in Shiraz City, Fars Province, Iran, in 2016. The participants of the intervention group attended training based on the PRECEDE model. The study compared mean scores of knowledge, attitude, enabling factors, perceived social support, quality of life, general health, self-efficacy, and screening behaviors of the subjects before and 6 months after intervention in experimental and control groups. The mean age of experimental group was 56.45 ± 8.65, and the mean age of the control group was 55.64 ± 8.71 years (P = 0.521). The study showed that there was a significant increase in the mean score of knowledge, attitudes, perceived self-efficacy, enabling factors, perceived social support, quality of life, public health and screening behaviors of the experimental group; however, no significant change was observed in the mean score of knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, quality of life, general health, perceived social support, enabling factors, and screening behaviors of the control group. Our findings showed that the health education programs designed based on PRECEDE could positively affect prostate cancer screening behaviors of individuals by improving their knowledge level and attitude, enabling factors, perceived social support, quality of life, general health, and self-efficacy.


Screening PRECEDE model Prostate cancer Knowledge 


  1. 1.
    Alghamidi IG, Hussain II, Alghamdi MS, El-Sheemy MA (2014) The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008. Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 7(1):18–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    OranusiU CK, TMbieri UT, Oranusi IO, Nwofor AME (2012) Prostate cancer awareness and screening among male public servants in Anambra State, Nigeria. Afr J Urol 18:72–74Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mazdak H, Mazdak M, Jamali L, Hassanzadeh KA (2012) Determination of prostate cancer risk factors in Isfahan, Iran: a case-control study. Med Arh 66(1):45–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nakandi H, Kirabo M, Semugabo A, Kittengo P, Kitayimbwab KS, Maena J (2013) Knowledge, attitudes and practices of Ugandan men regarding prostate cancer. Afr J Urol 19:165–170PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A (2016) Cancer statistics, 2016. CA Cancer J Clin 66(1):7–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shafique K, McLoone P, Qureshi K, Leung H, Hart C, Morrison DS (2012) Cholesterol and the risk of grade-specific prostate cancer incidence: evidence from two large prospective cohort studies with up to 37 years’ follow up. BMC Cancer 12:25PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Siegel R, DeSantis C, Jemal A (2014) Colorectal cancer statistics, 2014. CA Cancer J Clin 64(2):104–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Xu J, Ward E (2010) Cancer statistics, 2010. CA Cancer J Clin 60(5):277–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Malekzadeh R (2003) Incidences of different cancers in Iran. The 16th International Congress of Geographic Medicine Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Shiraz: Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, p 78Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rafiemanesh H, Enayatrad M, Salehiniya H (2015) Epidemiology and trends of mortality from prostate cancer in Iran. J Isfahan Med Sch 33(330):515–521 (Persian)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nagavi M (2005) The image of morbidity and mortality in 23 provinces in 2003. Department of Health; Network development and health promotion center, Tehran (Persian)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    So WK, Choi KC, Tang WP, Lee PC, Shiu AT, Ho SS, Chan HY, Lam WW, Goggins WB, Chan CW (2014) Uptake of prostate cancer screening and associated factors among Chinese men aged 50 or more: a population-based survey. Cancer Biol Med 11:56–63PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Madu CO, Lu Y (2010) Novel diagnostic biomarkers for prostate cancer. J Cancer 1:150–177PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Conde FA, Landier W, Ishida D, Rose Bel, Cuaresma CF, Misola J (2011) Barriers and facilitators of prostate cancer screening among Filipino men in Hawaii. Oncol Nurs Forum 38(2);227-33.
  15. 15.
    de Paiva EP, Salvador da Motta MC, Griep RH (2011) Barriers related to screening examinations for prostate cancer. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem 19(1):73–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Teishima J, Maruyama S, Mochizuki H, Oka K, Ikeda K, Goto K, Nagamatsu H, Hieda K, Shoji K, Matsubara A (2014) Prostate cancer detection by prostate-specific antigen-based screening in the Japanese Hiroshima area shows early stage, low-grade, and low rate of cancer-specific death compared with clinical detection. Can Urol Assoc J 8(5–6):e327–e332PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Winterich JA, Grzywacz JG, Quandt SA, Clark PE, Miller DP, Acuna J et al (2009) Men’s knowledge and beliefs about prostate cancer: education, race, and screening status. Ethnicity Dis 19(2):199–203Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Schröder F, Hugosson J, Roobol MJ, Tammela TLJ, Ciatto S, Nelen V, Kwiatkowski M, Lujan M, Lilja H, Zappa M, Denis LJ, Recker F, Berenguer A, Määttänen L, Bangma CH, Aus G, Villers A, Rebillard X, van der Kwast T, Blijenberg BG, Moss SM, de Koning HJ, Auvinen A (2009) Screening and prostate-cancer mortality in a randomized European study. N Engl J Med 360:1320–1328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hugosson J, Carlsson S, Aus G, Bergdahl S, Khatami A, Lodding P, Gustaf Pihl C, Stranne J, Holmberg E, Lilja H (2010) Mortality results from the Göteborg randomized population-based prostate-cancer screening trial. Lancet Oncol 11:725–732PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    US Preventive Services Task Force (2008) Screening for prostate cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 149:185–191Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lee DJ, Consedine NS, Spencer BA (2011) Barriers and facilitators to digital rectal examination screening among African-American and Afro-Caribbean men. Urology 77(4):891–898PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Harvey IS, Alston RJ (2011) Understanding preventive behaviors among mid-Western African-American men: a pilot qualitative study of prostate screening. J Mens Health 8(2):140–151PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gonzalez JR, Consedine NS, McKiernan JM, Spencer BA (2008) Barriers to the initiation and maintenance of prostate specific antigen screening in Black American and Afro-Caribbean men. J Urol 180:2403–2408 discussion 8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Steele CB, Miller DS, Maylahn C, Uhler RJ, Baker CT (2000) Knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices among older men regarding prostate cancer. Am J Public Health 90:1595–1600PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wilkinson S, List M, Sinner M, Dai L, Chodak G (2003) Educating African-American men about prostate cancer: impact on awareness and knowledge. Urology 61:308–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Merrill RM (2001) Demographics and health–related factors of men receiving prostate-specific antigen screening in Utah. Prev Med 33:646–652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Capık C, Gözüm S (2011) Development and validation of health beliefs model scale for prostate cancer screenings (HBM-PCS): evidence from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Eur J Oncol Nurs 15(5):478–485. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sherman DW, Haber J, Hoskins CN, Budin WC, Maislin G, Cater J et al (2009) Differences in physical, emotional, and social adjustment of intimate, family, and no family patient-partner dyads based on a breast cancer intervention study. Oncol Nurs Forum 36:185–197Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shojaeezadeh D (2000) Health education model. 1st, Communication and Health Education Center Publisher, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, PP: 1–25. (Persian)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mitchell TD (2004) Applications of the RRECEDE model to the evaluation of cevical cancer screening behavior among college women. Dissertation presented for the degree of doctor of philosophy, University of FloridaGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Menon U, Champion VL, Larkin GN, Zollinger TW, Gerde PM, Vernon SW (2003) Beliefs associated with fecal occult blood test and colonoscopy use at a worksite colon cancer screening program. J Occup Environ Med 45(8):891–898PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Koelen MA, van den Ban AW (2004) Health education and health promotion. First published, 2004. Wageningen Academic Publisher, the Netherlands, p 25Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mohammadi N, Rafieifar SH, Akbari M, Jamshidi H (2005) Health education (acquaintance with practical concepts) for health education experts. Ministry of Health & Medical Education, Health Helpmeetation, Operation of communications and health Education. Tehran University of Medical Sciences: Mehre Ravesh Publisher p 55–80Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sharma M, Romas JA. Theoretical foundations of health education and health promotion; second edition, copyright 2012 by jones & Bartlett learning, LLC: p 43Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Saffari M, Shojaiezadeh D, Ghofranipour F, Pakpour A, Ramazankhani A, Hosseini Sade SR. Health communication. asar e sobhan institute, 2st edit, September 2012: p 82Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chiua BCH, Andersonc JR, Corbind D (2005) Predictors of prostate cancer screening among health fair participants. Public Health 119:686–693Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Oliver JS (2008) Prostate cancer screening patterns among African American men in the rural south. (Dissertations) PhD, Nursing, School of Nursing. Georgia State University Digital ArchiveGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kenerson Donna (2010) Use of the theory of planned behavior to assess prostate cancer screening intent among African American men. (Dissertations) PhD, Nursing science, School of Vanderbilt UniversityGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Didarloo A, Shekhi S, Sorkhabi Z, Sharafkhani N (2016) Effect of theory-centered educational program on prostate cancer preventive behaviors among male teachers: a quasi-experimental study. Iran J Health Educ Health Promot 4(3):205–216Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jeihooni AK, Kashfi SM, Kashfi SH, Heydarabadi AB, Imanzad M, Hafez AA (2015) Factors associated with prostate cancer screening behavior among men over 50 in Fasa, Iran, based on the PRECEDE model. Electron Phys 7(2):1054–1062.  10.14661/2015.1054–1062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Boyle P (1998) Prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing as screening for prostate cancer: the current controversy. Ann Oncol 9(12):1263–1264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Stark JR, Mucci L, Rothman KJ, Adami HO (2009) Screening for prostate cancer remains controversial. BMJ 24(339);3601. doi:
  43. 43.
    Schroder FH, Hugosson J, Roobol MJ, Tammela TL, Ciatto S, Nelen V et al (2009) Screening and prostate-cancer mortality in a randomized European study. N Engl J Med 360(13):1320–1328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Schroder FH, Hugosson J, Roobol MJ, Tammela TL, Zappa M, Nelen V et al (2014) Screening and prostate cancer mortality: results of the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) at 13 years of follow-up. Lancet 384(9959):2027–2035PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tun Firzara AM, Ng CJ (2016) Knowledge and practice of prostate cancer screening among general practitioners in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 6(9):2016–011467Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Andriole GL, Crawford ED, Grubb RL 3rd, Buys SS, Chia D, Church TR et al (2009) Mortality results from a randomized prostate-cancer screening trial. N Engl J Med 360(13):1310–1319PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Andriole GL, Crawford ED, Grubb RL 3rd, Buys SS, Chia D, Church TR et al (2012) Prostate cancer screening in the randomized Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial: mortality results after 13 years of follow-up. J Natl Cancer Inst 104(2):125–132PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Moyer VA (2012) Screening for prostate cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 157(2):120–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Allan GM, Chetner MP, Donnelly BJ, Hagen NA, Ross D, Ruether JD et al (2011) Furthering the prostate cancer screening debate (prostate cancer specific mortality and associated risks). Can Urol Assoc J 5(6):416–421PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Carter HB, Albertsen PC, Barry MJ, Etzioni R, Freedland SJ, Greene KL et al (2013) Early detection of prostate cancer: AUA Guideline. J Urol 190(2):419–426PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Qaseem A, Barry MJ, Denberg TD, Owens DK, Shekelle P (2013) Screening for prostate cancer: a guidance statement from the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med 158(10):761–769PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wolf AM, Wender RC, Etzioni RB, Thompson IM, D'Amico AV, Volk RJ et al (2010) American Cancer Society guideline for the early detection of prostate cancer: update 2010. CA Cancer J Clin 60(2):70–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fridriksson J, Gunseus K, Stattin P (2012) Information on pros and cons of prostate-specific antigen testing to men prior to blood draw: a study from the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden. Scand J Urol Nephrol 46(5):326–331PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sheridan SL, Felix K, Pignone MP, Lewis CL (2004) Information needs of men regarding prostate cancer screening and the effect of a brief decision aid. Patient Educ Couns 54(3):345–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Volk RJ, Hawley ST, Kneuper S, Holden EW, Stroud LA, Cooper CP et al (2007) Trials of decision aids for prostate cancer screening: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med 33(5):428–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hosseini M, SeyedAlinaghi S, Mahmoudi M, McFarland W (2010) A case-control study of risk factors for prostate cancer in Iran. Acta Med Iran 48(1):61–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Etemadi K, Mehdigouya M, Ramezanidaryia Sari R, Modiriyan M, Partovipoor E, Arjmandpoor M. Iran cancer report 2010, Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education; Department of Health/Control of Non communicable Diseases/Cancer Department 2014; Available from:
  58. 58.
    Akbarizadeh J, Gheibizadeh M, Fereidoonimoghadam M, Jahani S, Saki MA (2016) A survey of knowledge about and perceived barriers to prostate cancer screening among medical staff. Jundishapur J Chronic Dis Care 5(3):e31744Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Stewart AL, Hays RD, Ware JE Jr (1988) The MOS short-form general health survey: reliability and validity in a patient population. Med Care 26:724–735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Robb JC, Young LT, Cooke RG, Joffe RT (1998) Gender differences in patients with bipolar disorder influence outcome in the medical outcomes survey (SF-20) subscale scores. J Affect Disord 49:189–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Nadrian H, Morowati Sharifabad MA, Soleimani S (2010) Paradims of rheumatoid arthritis patients quality of life predictors based on path analysis of the Precede model. J Hormozgan Univ Med Sci 14(1):32–44 (Persian)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Goldberg DP, Hillier VF (1979) A scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire. Psychol Med 9(8):139–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Weinrich SP, Seger R, Miller BL, Davis C, Kim S, Wheeler C et al (2004) Knowledge of the limitations associated with prostate cancer screening among low-income men. Cancer Nurs 27(6):442–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rajabi GR (2006) Reliability and validity of the General Self-Efficacy Beliefs Scale (GSE-10) comparing the psychology students of Shahid Chamrin University and Azad University of Marvdasht. New Thoughts Educ 2(1–2):111–122 (Persian)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Forrester-Anderson IT (2005) Prostate cancer screening perceptions, knowledge and behaviors among African American men: focus group findings. J Health Care Poor Underserved 16(4):22–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Woods VD, Montgomery SB, Herring RP (2006) Social ecological predictors of prostate-specific antigen blood test and digital rectal examination in black American men. J Natl Med Assoc 98(4):492–504PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Parker PA, Cohen L, Bhadkamkar VA, Babaian RJ, Smith MA, Gritz ER et al (2006) Demographic and past screening behaviors of men attending a free community screening program for prostate cancer. Health Promot Pract 7(2):213–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Fallahi A, Nedrian H, Mohammadi S, Baghiani moghadam MH (2010) Examine factors associated with quality of life in patients with peptic ulcer based on PRECEDE model in Sanandaj. J Paramedical Sch Tehran Univ Med Sci 2(1–2):30–43Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kleier JA (2004) Using the health belief model to reveal the perceptions of Jamaican and Haitian men regarding prostate cancer. J Multicult Nurs Health 10(3):41Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    McCree-Hale R, Hale TM, Rutley KR, Aung M, Jolly PE (2012) Evaluating a theory-based health education intervention to improve awareness of prostate cancer among men in Western Jamaica. West Indian Med J 61(6):580–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    mazloomi S, Dehghan HR, mir jalili AM, Dehghan H (2017) Effect of education on preventive treatment of prostate cancer in men over 40 years of Yazd on the health belief model. Tolo Behdasht 15(5):31–43Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Matin H, Rastgarimehr B, Afkari ME, Solhi M, Taghdisi MH, Mansourian M et al (2014) Relationship between the educational stage of PRECEDE model and quality of life improvement in the elderly affiliated with Tehran culture house for the aged. IJDLD 13(6):469–478Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Zendeh talab H (2012) The effect of a program designed based on PRECEDE-PROCEED model on adolescents’ mental health and their parents’ participation. Evid Based Care 2(1):45–54Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Dizaji MB, Taghdisi MH, Solhi M, Hoseini SM, Shafieyan Z, Qorbani M et al (2014) Effects of educational intervention based on PRECEDE model on self care behaviors and control in patients with type 2 diabetes in 2012. J Diabetes Metab Disord 13:72.–6581–13-72 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hazavehei SM, Khani Jeihooni A, Hasanzadeh A et al (2010) The effect of educational program based on BASNEF model for eye care in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. J Res Health Sci 10:81–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bandura A (2011) Social cognitive theory. Handb Theor Soc Psychol 1:349Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Alidosti M, Sharifirad G, Hemate Z, Delaram M, Najimi A, Tavassoli E (2011) The effect of education based on health belief model of nutritional behaviors associated with gastric cancer in housewives of Isfahan city. Sci Res J Shahed Univ 18(94):1–11Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Consedine NS, Horton D, Ungar T, Joe AK, Ramirez P, Borrell L (2007) Fear, knowledge, and efficacy beliefs differentially predict the frequency of digital rectal examination versus prostate specific antigen screening in ethnically diverse samples of older men. Am J Mens Health 1(1):29–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kessler TA (2012 Jan 1) Increasing mammography and cervical cancer knowledge and screening behaviors with an educational program. Oncol Nurs Forum 39(1):61–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Keshavarz Z, Simbar M, Ramezankhani A (2011) Factors for performing breast and cervix cancer screening by Iranian female workers: a qualitative-model study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 12(6):1517–1522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Tavasoli A, Hasanzadeh R, Ghiasvand R, Tol A, Shojaezadeh D (2010) The effect of educational based on health belief model on promoting preventive behaviors of cardiovascular disease in housewives of Isfahan. J Public Health Res 8(3):11–23Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hatefnia A, Niknami M, Mahmoudi M, Ghofranipour F, Lamyian M (2010) Effect based on health belief model on attitude and practice of women working in Tehran factories pharmaceutical firms in the field of breast cancer and mammography quarterly. J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci 4(1):42Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Luo Y, He G-P, Zhou J-W, Luo Y (2010) Factors impacting compliance with standard precautions in nursing, China. Int J Infect Dis 14(12):1106–1114Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tehrani FJ, Nikpour S, Kazemi EAH, Sanaie N, Panahi SAS (2014) The effect of education based on health belief model on health beliefs of women with urinary tract infection. Int J Commun Based Nurs Midwifery 2(1):2Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Khani Jeihooni A, Hidarnia A, Kaveh MH, Hajizadeh E (2015) The effect of a prevention program based on health belief model on osteoporosis. J Res Health Sci 15(1):47–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Chen SY, Wang HH (2007) The relationship between physical function, knowledge of disease, social support and self-care behavior in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Nurs Res 15(3):183–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Yavari PMY, Aminpour HM (2005) Knowledge and practice of women regarding BSE: a case-control study. J Ardabil Univ Med Sci 5(4):371–379Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Jones RA, Steeves R, Williams I (2009) How African American men decide whether or not to get prostate cancer screening. Cancer Nurs 32(2):166–172PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Didarloo A, Pourali R, sorkhabi Z, Sharafkhani N (2016) Survey of prostate cancer-preventive behaviors based on the health belief model constructs among male teachers of Urmia city, in 2015. J Urmia Nurs Midwifery Fac 14(3):271–281Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Nadrian H, Rahaee Z, Mazloomy Mahmoodabad SS, Bahrevar V, KHajeh Z, Najafi S et al (2014) Effects of educational intervention on promoting skin cancer preventive behaviors and its predisposing factors among female students in Yazd city: an application of some PRECEDE model constructs. RJMS 21(126):55–64Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Khani Jeihooni A, Kashfi SM, Zareei S, Kashfi SH Effectiveness of a training program based on PRECEDE model on fruit and vegetable consumption by female students in high schools of Fasa City, Iran. Int J Pediatr.  10.22038/ijp.2016.7969
  92. 92.
    Kashfi SM, Khani Jeihooni A, Rezaianzadeh A, Karimi S (2014) The effect of mothers education program based on the precede model on the mean weight in children (6-12 months) at health centers in Shiraz, Fars Province. Med J Islam Repub Iran 28:95PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hosseini F, Farshidi H, Aghamolaei T, Madani A, Ghanbarnejad A (2014) The impact of an educational intervention based on PRECEDE-PROCEED model on lifestyle changes among hypertension patients. Iran J Health Educ Health Promot 2(1):17–27Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mokrowiecka A, Jurek K, Pińkowski D, Małecka-Panas E (2006) The comparison of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with GERD, peptic ulcer disease and ulcerative colitis. Adv Med Sci 51(4):142–147Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hosseini M, Jahani Y, Mahmoudi M, Eshraghiyan M, Yahya Pour Y, Keshtkar A (2008) Assessment of risk factors for prostate cancer in Mazandaran Province. J Gorgan Univ Med Sci 10(3):58–64 (Persian)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Bynum SA, Brandt HM, Sharpe PA, Williams MS, Kerr JC (2011) Working to close the gap: identifying predictors of HPV vaccine uptake among young African American women. J Health Care Poor Underserved 22(2):549–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ghodsbin F, Zare M, Jahanbin I, Ariafar A, Keshavarzi S (2014) A survey of the knowledge and beliefs of retired men about prostate cancer screening based on health belief model. IJCBNM 2(4):279–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Whaley Q (2006) The relationship between perceived barriers and prostate cancer screening practices among African-American men. (Dissertation). Florida: The Florida State University College of NursingGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hansson A, Hilleras P, Forsell Y (2005) What kind of self-care strategies do people report using and is there an association with well-being? Soc Indic Res 73(1):133–139Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Atulomah Nnodimele O, Olanrewaju Motunrayo F, Amosu Ademola M, Omotoyosi A (2010) Level of awareness, perception and screening behavior regarding prostate cancer among men in a rural community of Ikenne Local Government Area, Nigeria. Prim Prev Insights 2:11–20Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lee D, Consedine Nathan S, Spencer Benjamin A (2011) Barriers and facilitators to digital rectal examination screening among African-American and Afro-Caribbean men. Urology 77(4):891–898PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Rezaeian M, Tabatabaei Z, Naeimi R, Esmaeili A, Jamali M, VaziriNejad R et al Knowledge, attitude and practice of Rafsanjan male pensioners towards prevention of prostate cancer in the year 2006. Ofogh-E-Danesh 2007, 12(4):19–26Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Meador MG, Linnan LA (2006) Using the PRECEDE model to plan men’s health programs in a managed care setting. Health Promot Pract 7(2):186–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Zare M, Ghodsbin F, Jahanbin I, Ariafar A, Keshavarzi S, Izadi T (2016) The effect of health belief model-based education on knowledge and prostate cancer screening behaviors: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Commun Based Nurs Midwifery 4(1):57 articles/PMC4709816/Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Khalili S, Shojaiezadeh D, Azam K, Kheirkhah Rahimabad K, Kharghani Moghadam M, Khazir Z (2014) The effectiveness of education on the health beliefs and practices related to breast cancer screening among women referred to Shahid Behtash Clinic, Lavizan Area, Tehran, using health belief model. J Health 5(1):45–58 [Persian]Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kalan Farmanfarma K, Zareban I, Jalili Z, Shahraki PM (2014) Effectiveness of education based on the health belief model on performing preventive measures for breast cancer among female teachers in Zahedan. J Educ Commun Health 1(1):11–18 [Persian]Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sharafkhani N, Khorsandi M, Shamsi M, Ranj baran M (2015) The effect of an educational intervention program on the adoption of low back pain preventive behaviors in nurses: an application of the health belief model. Glob Spine J 13:14Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Sadeghi R, Khanjani N, Hashemi M, Movagheripour M (2014) Using health belief model to prevent skin cancer among farmers. Iran J Health Educ Health Promot 2(3):215–222 [Persian]Google Scholar

Copyright information

© American Association for Cancer Education 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Khani Jeihooni
    • 1
    Email author
  • Seyyed Mansour Kashfi
    • 2
  • Mahmood Hatami
    • 3
  • Abulqasim Avand
    • 4
  • Mohammad-Rafi Bazrafshan
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Public Health, School of HealthFasa University of Medical SciencesFasaIran
  2. 2.Department of Public Health, School of HealthShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran
  3. 3.Department of Nursing, School of NursingFasa University of Medical SciencesFasaIran
  4. 4.Department of Language, School of MedicineFasa University of Medical SciencesFasaIran
  5. 5.Department of Nursing, School of NursingLarestan University of Medical SciencesLarestanIran

Personalised recommendations